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| * [[Antibubbles]] Fun and counterintuitive, on the road to bubble-onium.
Edit this page to join, add, or suggest a project and to adjust project status. To express interest in or join a project, add your name and contact the instructors or other participants. Be sure your contact information is on the people page so folks can reach you. To add or suggest a project, edit the project page to add a project title, then click the title to start a new project page from a template. Include a few photos, a brief description, references, and your name. To comment on a project, edit the project page for that project. Add only constructive comments or suggestions.
Antibubbles Fun and counterintuitive, on the road to bubble-onium.
Pilot-wave hydrodynamics Faraday waves and drops
Smart Reed - investigation of active feedback for a reed instrument
Smart Collar - smart dust year two, this time with a bazillion sensors as well as gps and wireless LTE, ditching bluetooth, going for broke. Not, I mean not broke at all!
Corundum - this is a gem, making sapphires.
Personal centrifuge - a start on DNA analysis in the field
Peltier power - hot 'n cold => electric current
Smart dust - little arousable autonomous things that know where they are and stuff, to put places
Fizeau experiment - Light, moving water, optical interference, and special relativity (year 2).
Hyperloop SpaceX Elon Musk's pneumatic tube high speed transport demonstrator
Watt Balance The kilogram defined in terms of quantized power with Legos(TM), just not exactly NIST level.
Maglev Not the macroscopic diagnetism used by Badgerloop - atomic scale diamagetism.
Virtual Reality Synthetic video for virtual reality on a cell phone
SafeCycle LIDAR-based safety for the bicyclist, with haptic interface.
CNC Router Building the OX open-source router with LinuxCNC for control
DIY Electron Accelerator DIY Electron Accelerator - are you instructable?
GoAMP Backup power. We all need that, right?
Smart Mirror Reflect on this
Affection Facial Action Coding System (FACS) technology - an interface to emotion
3D printed musical instruments A trumpet has 28 parts. No problem.
Fizeau experiment - Light, moving water, optical interference, and special relativity.
PeopleCounter - R&D on monitoring occupancy.
WeightUpSolutions - What is up, what down. Repeat.
Synthene - Graphene-based supercapacitor R&D
Simulating Brain Activity - Build an interactive 3D display of a brain that will show neural activity through lighting.
High Altitude Balloon Close to space without a rocket, a tracked flight to 100,000' above Madison, round 2.
Tests of gravitational time dilation Your feet aren't aging at the same rate as your head when you are standing.
X-rays from peeling tape Maybe don't try this at home. Oh, you already did...
Methane Digester Small-scale microbial digester that produces usable methane gas.
3D Printer Recycling A personal recycler prototype, year 2.
Autonomous 3d scanner Multicopter based optical scanning and reconstruction
3D printing Resources and suggested projects. Start with something from Thingiverse
EEG Pattern recognition based on electrical pickup for Brain Computer Interfaces/Mind control
Quadcopter Large one to carry a payload, international collaboration
Troy project Archaeology, muography, tomography algorithms,...
Homemade GPS Receiver Improving on your smartphone
Bubble Stability A novel kind of bubble and blowing smoke
Graphene Micro-Supercapacitors Towards a cheap battery replacement
3D Food Printing Just imagine anything you want to eat...
Research computing cluster Develop an undergraduate research computing cluster
Receipts No thank you! Starting with UW campus.
Website We need more than this wiki, eh?
prINKart A photosensitive paper
Mounds and petroglyphs 3D-models of Ouisconsin's heritage
Personal Greenhouse Living Pantry for the inner city, 3rd world, and 1st world
Grey Water Toilet Use that shower/bath water, OK?
Hivemind Hivemind seeks to create a revolutionary new way to interface with our day to day devices via the power of thought alone.
Hammocks! Outdoor learning spaces for the 21st century
Foucault Pendulum The Earth rotates. The Foucault pendulum demonstrates it.
Laser pointer safety Be wary of the blue and green pointers.
Fusor Homebrew fusion
Granular crystals DIY macroscopic and mesoscopic crystals have remarkable mechanical properties
Exoplanets Find some with a remotely operated telescope.
Xbox Kinect for Instructional Labs So many markets for this...
GoogleGlass Develop educational and other apps for Glass.
Lidar Light Detection and Ranging for archaeological survey.
RC Helicopter Try a fuel cell to explore extending the range of UAVs generally.
Visitor counter Help track the Physics Museum use, sell that product to say Walmart.
Drones Drones, and more drones; resources and project ideas.
Buddha Board Sustainable white board.
CubeSats 10cmx10cmx10cm satellites free for student use.
Biopowered GPS insect tracking Fly with the monarchs.
Robotic human voice How do we talk?
4D Photography Faster and volumetric optical and near optical sight
Active feedback stabilization of magnetic levitation Futuristic looking demo with practical applications for high-speed transit
Active mechanical stablization of structures Exercise in using parametric excitation.
Graphene loudspeaker Using a new material.
Hydrophone Use those ear bud microphones to troll for sounds.
Controlling bioluminescence Luciferin rocks.
iPhone technologies Smart phones are the tricorder of today.
Entrepreneurship clinic Resources on starting your own business.
Start-up weekend Launch a company in 48 hours.
Take apart a Laptop So, um, what is inside a laptop, iphone or droid, ipad, itouch,....
Jawbone Wristband computer. Neck band? Ringband? Google Glass?
DNA origami Programmed self-assembly of nanoscale containers, motors,...
Develop demonstrations Physics needs you to improve our classes.
Supercooled Water An example demo
DYI gadgets Stuff you can MAKE.
Thermoelectric devices Transmutation of energy in various forms remains foundational.
Education Helping K-12 and ourselves.
Art, Design, Architecture Ideas for projects blending art, science, and technology.
3d-printed musical instruments. We have done a trumpet. A flute next? How about hydraulaphones? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnJb9WyhCUc Get electronic: Samchilians https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DbOIBIwg_E4 AlphaSphere https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T8y2ZwNbQ6k Just weird mechanical is fun too: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c__xzSfQA5g
The Fun theory
Making a staircase into a piano gets people to choose it rather than the escalator. Can you make a game of something to solve a problem? http://www.thefuntheory.com/award-entries
Prints that project 3d images and animations http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenticular_printing
Send to this or other commercial print house http://www.snapilypro.com/
Light field cameras
Capture the angles and positions of photons
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-field_camera, http://www.raytrix.de/index.php/Cameras.html ,http://www.raytrix.de/index.php/3d_video_en.html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lytro, http://cameramaker.se/plenoptic.htm
Explore albumen, autochrome, calotype, carbon, collotype, cyanotype, daguerreotype, platiumum
Acoustics: Follicle mites and small scales
I wonder what follicle mites sound like...
MOMA : Acoustics: Subtleties of the sonic : http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v500/n7464/full/500526a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20130829
Acoustics: Sound engineering
Bottling up sound waves: Acoustic bottle beams hold promise for imaging, cloaking, levitation and more, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140804151512.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily+%28Latest+Science+News+--+ScienceDaily%29
Generation of acoustic self-bending and bottle beams by phase engineering, http://www.nature.com.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/ncomms/2014/140703/ncomms5316/full/ncomms5316.html
A Macroscopic Tractor Beam with Acoustic Waves http://physics.aps.org.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/articles/v7/46
Sources for inspiration
Practical physics - a collection of experiments by the Nuffield FOundation Institute of Physics (IOP) http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practical-physics
HUANG YI & KUKA - A DUET OF HUMAN AND ROBOT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7moBSpAEkD4
Reverse engineering (KahnAcademy) https://www.khanacademy.org/science/projects/Reverse-Eng
Google Glass specs: http://www.gizmag.com/google-glass-specs/27087/
Biomedical engineering undergraduate projects archives: http://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/
Kickstarter projects: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1130494637/techstyle-haus-solar-decathlon-europe-2014, http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/143072809/rhode-island-mini-maker-faire-2013, http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/916029689/the-fab-lab-at-space, https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1697625937/the-tiltyimu-a-family-of-user-friendly-robotics-co, http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/374019694/balloon-chain-at-burning-man-2013
Design awards http://www.core77designawards.com/2013/recipients/
Projects, contests, grand challenges https://ninesights.ninesigma.com
Challenges at Mind Sumo https://www.mindsumo.com/challenges
Links/ideas (many more on the Diigo page!)
Crossing the goal line: New tech tracks football in 3-D space -- ScienceDaily http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140613101659.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily+%28Latest+Science+News+--+ScienceDaily%29.
Use photogrammetry on video Muon detector could help UK reduce carbon emissions -- ScienceDaily http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140613084419.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily+%28Latest+Science+News+--+ScienceDaily%29
Buy lunch, pay with your hand: Vein scanning technique -- ScienceDaily http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140612120426.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily+%28Latest+Science+News+--+ScienceDaily%29
Octocopter named “HorseFly” takes flight http://www.rdmag.com/news/2014/06/octocopter-named-%E2%80%9Chorsefly%E2%80%9D-takes-flight
DARPA’s newest toy lets human scale vertical glass wall, just like Spider-Man http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2014/06/09/darpas-newest-toy-lets-human-scale-vertical-glass-wall-just-like-spider-man/?tid=hp_mm
Nestlé claims credit for ‘major advance’ in beverage powder solubility http://www.beveragedaily.com/R-D/Nestle-claims-credit-for-major-advance-in-beverage-powder-solubility
Drones give farmers eyes in the sky to check on crop progress http://www.rdmag.com/news/2014/06/drones-give-farmers-eyes-sky-check-crop-progress?et_cid=3978500&et_rid=517740405&location=top
Millennial Trains Project http://crowdhitch.millennialtrain.co Clever Domino's Applies Physics Principles to Pizza Delivery http://mashable.com/2014/06/09/pizza-delivery-physics/
Reinventing the Physicist: Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education for the 21st Century http://www.aps.org.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/programs/education/conferences/innovation.cfm
Partners in the Sky: Aviation and Aerospace Industry Leaders Join the Smithsonian in Worldwide Conservation Efforts | Newsdesk http://newsdesk.si.edu/releases/partners-sky-aviation-and-aerospace-industry-leaders-join-smithsonian-worldwide-conservatio.
1-gram tracking devices just got a push! Extraordinary absorption of sound in porous lamella-crystals : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group http://www.nature.com.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/srep/2014/140414/srep04674/full/srep04674.html .
Extraordinary absorption of sound in porous lamella-crystals J. Christensen, V. Romero-García, R. Picó, A. Cebrecos, F. J. García de Abajo, N. A. Mortensen, M. Willatzen & V. J. Sánchez-Morcillo Affiliations Contributions Corresponding author Scientific Reports 4, Article number: 4674 doi:10.1038/srep04674 Received 19 March 2014 Accepted 26 March 2014 Published 14 April 2014
Guide to Silicon Valley Startup scene. http://steveblank.com/visitors-guide/
The Public Forum Institute | Internships
http://publicforuminstitute.org/about/internships/ The Public Forum Institute Intern Program offers college students the opportunity to live and work in Washington, D.C., gaining experience in government and public policy. Interns have direct contact with congressional staff, as well as members of the executive branch and other elected officials.
Brigham Young Researchers Develop Google Glass System To Assist Deaf Students -- Campus Technology http://campustechnology.com/articles/2014/05/28/brigham-young-researchers-develop-google-glass-system-to-assist-deaf-students.aspx
GEM Global Entrepreneurship Monitor http://www.gemconsortium.org
Microbubble Compositions, Properties and Biomedical Applications http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2889676/ Medical things one can do with bubbles. Can you think of other applications?
LIX - The Smallest 3D Printing Pen in the World by LIX — Kickstarter https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/lix3d/lix-the-smallest-3d-printing-pen-in-the-world Maker Faire | Find a Faire Near You http://makerfaire.com/map/
Robots transform into furniture at EPFL http://www.rdmag.com/videos/2014/05/robots-transform-furniture-epfl?et_cid=3953140&et_rid=517740405&type=cta Interesting concept. Make smaller differently? Make something that climbs a wall and then hauls itself up?
A Woman Has Been Given A New 3D Printed Skull http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/woman-has-been-given-new-3d-printed-skull 3D Printed Cast Speeds Bone Recovery Using Ultrasound http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/3d-printed-cast-speeds-bone-recovery-using-ultrasound
Winning Ag Prize teams address global food system challenges, from food spoilage to hunger | Wisconsin Institute for Discovery. http://wid.wisc.edu/wid-culture/winning-ag-prize-teams-address-global-food-system-challenges-from-food-spoilage-to-hunger/?utm_source=May+2014+Newsletter&utm_campaign=Newsletters&utm_medium=email
Maker Commons – A Community of Makers | Commons In A Box http://commonsinabox.org/archives/1044 Replacement for wiki?
World’s smallest magazine cover
Nanoscale drawing on plastic Blender whips up graphene | Science News https://www.sciencenews.org/article/blender-whips-graphene
Auditory brainstem response to complex sounds: a tutorial http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2868335/
3d cad and print? Advanced Tactics, Inc. | Home of the AT Black Knight TRANSFORMER https://www.advancedtacticsinc.com
Internships in California for quadcopter VTOL Patent Lens Home http://www.patentlens.net/daisy/patentlens/patentlens.html
California VC Greg Robinson to Lead Wisconsin’s 4490 Ventures | Xconomy http://www.xconomy.com/wisconsin/2014/03/04/california-vc-greg-robinson-to-lead-wisconsins-4490-ventures/
Forget wearable tech, embeddable implants are already here - CNN.com http://www.cnn.com/2014/04/08/tech/forget-wearable-tech-embeddable-implants/index.html
National Robots Week Open House | Wisconsin Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory http://hci.cs.wisc.edu/national-robots-week-open-house/
Crowdfunding Site Raising Capital for ASU Student Projects -- Campus Technology http://campustechnology.com/articles/2014/04/03/crowdfunding-site-raising-capital-for-asu-student-projects.aspx
Headset & Accessories http://emotiv.com/store/headset.php
WID Frontier Fellows take on exonerations, archaeological sites and science images with data | Wisconsin Institute for Discovery http://wid.wisc.edu/wid-culture/wid-frontier-fellows-take-on-exonerations-archaeological-sites-and-science-images-with-data/
Wind Industry’s New Technologies Are Helping It Compete on Price - NYTimes.com http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/21/business/energy-environment/wind-industrys-new-technologies-are-helping-it-compete-on-price.html?ref=business&_r=0 ,http://www.altaerosenergies.com/.
XYZprinting Inc. – da Vinci 3D Printer $499 at Amazon http://us.xyzprinting.com/Product
Soccer displays fractal dynamics http://www.rdmag.com/news/2014/03/soccer-displays-fractal-dynamics?et_cid=3832585&et_rid=517740405&type=cta
Pretty naive video analysis on a system that could be interesting. Shapeways | About - How it works http://www.shapeways.com/about/how_does_it_work?li=home-learnmore [1402.7101]
New type of microengine using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.7101 Agisoft PhotoScan Standard | www.agisoft.ru http://www.agisoft.ru/products/photoscan/standard/
Roomy Cages Built From DNA : Wyss Institute at Harvard http://wyss.harvard.edu/viewpressrelease/148/
Innovative solar-powered toilet developed by CU-Boulder ready for India unveiling | University of Colorado Boulder http://www.colorado.edu/news/releases/2014/03/12/innovative-solar-powered-toilet-developed-cu-boulder-ready-india-unveiling
WI Drone 2013 Senate Bill 196 http://docs.legis.wi.gov/2013/proposals/sb196
GenoCAD: CAD Software for Synthetic Biology http://www.genocad.org
Posters in the Rotunda 2013 http://www.wisconsin.edu/posters/
Epicenter: Creating a Nation of Entrepreneurial Engineers http://epicenter.stanford.edu
Campuses | Dream. Design. Deliver. http://dreamdesigndeliver.org/about/
Someone interested in putting WI on this map. Dell Social Innovation Challenge http://www.dellchallenge.org/discover/projects
The Awesome Foundation http://www.awesomefoundation.org/en
Physics - Droplets Caught at High Speed http://physics.aps.org.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.1.014004 34 microsecs to form a drop
Battery-free tech brings gesture recognition to all devices http://www.rdmag.com/videos/2014/02/battery-free-tech-brings-gesture-recognition-all-devices?et_cid=3795336&et_rid=517740405&type=cta
Grants | NCIIA http://nciia.org/grants National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance
Start it up :Mission & History | NFTE http://www.nfte.com/what/mission Org devoted to promoting entrepreneurship
We The Geeks | The White House http://www.whitehouse.gov/we-the-geeks
Laser-Sintering 3d printing http://www.rdmag.com/articles/2014/02/laser-sintering-effect?et_cid=3788672&et_rid=517740405&type=cta
Global Space Balloon Challenge http://www.balloonchallenge.org
Microscopy: A new phase for X-ray imaging : Nature : Nature Publishing Group http://www.nature.com.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/nature/journal/v467/n7314/full/467409a.html
A battery small enough to be injected, energetic enough to track salmon http://www.rdmag.com/news/2014/02/battery-small-enough-be-injected-energetic-enough-track-salmon?et_cid=3775592&et_rid=517740405&type=cta
Students | AAAS 2014 Annual Meeting http://meetings.aaas.org/students/ Just down in Chicago, an earful for $70. Session: Nurturing Scientific Innovation and Entrepreneurship within the University Ecosystem (2014 AAAS Annual Meeting (13-17 February 2014)) http://aaas.confex.com/aaas/2014/webprogram/Session6794.html
RSA US Student Design Awards — An RSA Catalyst Project http://sda.rsa-us.org
Stratasys introduces world’s first color multi-material 3-D printer http://www.rdmag.com/news/2014/01/stratasys-introduces-world%E2%80%99s-first-color-multi-material-3-d-printer?et_cid=3736667&et_rid=517740405&type=cta
Engineers at beta user Trek Bicycle in Waterloo, Wisc., are using the Objet500 Connex3 for assessment and testing of accessories like bike chain stay guards and handlebar grips prior to actual production. "The Objet500 Connex3 Color Multi-material 3D Printer changed the way we manufacture at Trek, augmenting our traditional, time-consuming CNC processes with fast, iterative and realistic prototyping and functional testing," says Mike Zeigle, manager of Trek's prototype development group.
‘Office hours’ on State Street offers informal advice to entrepreneurs (Jan. 27, 2014)
3-D printed soil reveals the world beneath our feet http://www.rdmag.com/videos/2014/01/3-d-printed-soil-reveals-world-beneath-our-feet?et_cid=3733746&et_rid=517740405&type=cta
Interesting application of 3d-printing Penn State Launches Crowdfunding Campaign for Moonlander -- Campus Technology http://campustechnology.com/articles/2014/01/22/penn-state-launches-crowdfunding-campaign-for-moonlander.aspx
Inkjet printing - the physics of manipulating liquid jets and drops - Abstract - Journal of Physics: Conference Series - IOPscience http://iopscience.iop.org.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/1742-6596/105/1/012001
High-Speed Imaging of Drops and Bubbles - Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 40(1):257 http://www.annualreviews.org.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.fluid.40.111406.102215?prevSearch=searchText%253A%2528bubble%2529&searchHistoryKey=
3D Printed Food | BotBQ | The Open Source 3D Printing BBQ http://botbq.org/services/3d-printed-food/
Technology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones - News Center - UT Arlington http://www.uta.edu/news/releases/2014/01/microwindmill-rao-chiao.php
University of Toronto http://criticalmaking.com The critical making laboratory is a shared space for opening up the practice of experimentation with embedded and material digital technology to students and faculty in the Faculty of Information. The lab provides tools, materials, and training for building devices such as wearable computers, RFID systems, ubiquitous computing networks, and other physical computing technologies.
Swivl personal cameraman http://www.swivl.com ArduSat - Your Arduino Experiment in Space by ppl4world — Kickstarter http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/575960623/ardusat-your-arduino-experiment-in-space
Arts Business Symposium @ UW-Madison Continuing Studies http://continuingstudies.wisc.edu/conferences/arts-business-research-symposium/index.html?source=madisonartsbusiness.com/%C3%A2%E2%82%AC%C5%BD
Open Source Ecology http://opensourceecology.org/index.phpUW
Physics alum Marcin Jakobowski's project Students showcase wearable computing projects, design thinking (Dec. 19, 2013) http://www.news.wisc.edu/22403?utm_source=iUW&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=iUW2013-12-19
Superpedestrian - The Copenhagen Wheel https://www.superpedestrian.com PNNL: News - Algae to crude oil: Million-year natural process takes minutes in the lab http://www.pnnl.gov/news/release.aspx?id=1029
UW Rapid Prototyping Consortium http://prototype.wisc.edu/contact
DROP AND SPRAY FORMATION FROM A LIQUID JET - Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 30(1):85 http://www.annualreviews.org.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.fluid.30.1.85
Lionhead 3D Printer and 3D Scanner with Li Modeling Software by Radiant Fabrication — Kickstarter http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/radiantfabrication/lionhead-3d-printer-and-3d-scanner-with-li-modelin
Outgrowth of rapid prototyping center Harvesting waste plastic for 3D printers to reduce poverty: Plastic Bank : TreeHugger http://www.treehugger.com/clean-technology/harvesting-waste-plastic-reduce-poverty-plastic-bank.html
Engineer designs mug to keep coffee temperature just right http://www.rdmag.com/news/2013/12/engineer-designs-mug-keep-coffee-temperature-just-right?et_cid=3653754&et_rid=517740405&type=cta
How to Teach Entrepreneurship -- Campus Technology http://campustechnology.com/Articles/2013/10/16/How-to-Teach-Entrepreneurship.aspx?Page=1
Print Your Own 3D Learning Objects -- Campus Technology http://campustechnology.com/Articles/2013/12/04/Print-Your-Own-3D-Learning-Objects.aspx?Page=1
Video: A flying robotic jellyfish? Prototype proves it's possible - latimes.com http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-flying-robot-jellyfish-insects-bioinspired-engineering-20131125,0,1118474.story#axzz2mKaPFGeo%C2
The engineering behind additive manufacturing and the 3-D printing revolution http://www.rdmag.com/news/2013/12/engineering-behind-additive-manufacturing-and-3-d-printing-revolution?et_cid=3638079&et_rid=517740405&type=headline
Associated Students of Madison approves 2015 Green Fund | Office of Sustainability http://sustainability.wisc.edu/news-and-events/associated-students-of-madison-approves-2015-green-fund/
Open-Source Lab, 1st Edition | Joshua Pearce | ISBN 9780124104624 . http://store.elsevier.com/Open-Source-Lab/Joshua-Pearce/isbn-9780124104624/
Michigan Tech Open sustainability technology, Joshua Pearce. http://www.mse.mtu.edu/~pearce/