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||<25% style="text-align:center">[[PiraScheme#Thermodynamics|Table of Thermodynamics]] ||<25% style="text-align:center">[[ThermalProperties|Thermodynamics (4A): Thermal Properties of Matter]] ||<25% style="text-align:center">[[ChangeofState|Thermodynamics (4C): Change of State]] ||<25% style="text-align:center">[[Demonstrations|Lecture Demonstrations]] ||
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||<:25%>[:PiraScheme#Thermodynamics: Table of Thermodynamics]||<:25%>[:ThermalProperties: Thermodynamics (4A): Thermal Properties of Matter]||<:25%>[:ChangeofState: Thermodynamics (4C): Change of State]||<:25%>[:Demonstrations:Lecture Demonstrations]||
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||<#dddddd> Grayed Demos are either not available or haven't been built yet.||

= 4B10. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat =
||<:10%>'''PIRA #'''||<:>'''Demonstration Name'''||<:60%>'''Abstract'''||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.05 ||#dddddd> specific heat of liquids problem ||#dddddd> A note on the inexplicably high specific heat of liquids. See AJP 52(9),856 [http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v52/i9/p856_s1] ||
|| 4B10.10 || heat capacity || 1) One liter of water in a beaker water and aluminum of 1 Kg total mass in another beaker are heated on the same hot plate. Display temperatures of both. 2) Two beakers, one with 1 Kg water and the other with .5 Kg water and .5 Kg lead are heated at the same rate. 3) Show temp on LED bar graph. ||
|| 4B10.15 || water and oil on a hot plate || ||
|| 4B10.15 || water and oil || Heat two beakers on a single hot plate, each contains the same mass of either water or oil. ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.16 ||<#dddddd> iron and water ||<#dddddd> Iron and a vessel of water with the same mass and area are heated on identical Bunsen burners. Dip your hand in the water and sprinkle it on the iron plate where it will sizzle. ||
|| 4B10.20 || mixing water || Different masses of hot and cold water are mixed in a large beaker and the final temp is compared to the calculated value. ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.26 ||<#dddddd> calorimeter ||<#dddddd> A calorimeter is used to measure the specific heat of lead. Known masses of lead and copper are heated and poured into calorimeters with a known mass of water. Specific heats are computed from initial and final temperatures. ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.27 ||<#dddddd> ice calorimeter ||<#dddddd> Several different metals on the same mass are heated to the same temp and lowered into a line of crushed ice filled funnels. The melted water is collected in graduates. ||
|| 4B10.28 || metals in water || Heat metals of the same mass and lower them into beakers containing the same amount of water at room temperature. ||
|| 4B10.30 || specific heat with rods and wax || 1) Five metals of the same mass are heated in boiling water and placed on a thin sheet of paraffin. 2) Several cylinders of the different metals with the same mass and diameter are heated in paraffin and transferred to a paraffin disc. 3) Heat equal mass cylinders of aluminum, steel, and lead and let them melt a path through honeycomb. ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.35 ||<#dddddd> specific heat at low temperatures ||<#dddddd> Cylinders of the same size of aluminum and lead heat up at the same rate after being cooled in liquid nitrogen. ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.40 ||<#dddddd> differential thermoscope ||<#dddddd> The jacket areas of two unsilvered unevacuated dewar flasks are connected to a U tube and equal masses of water and mercury at 100 C are poured in. The U tube shows the difference in heat capacities. ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.50 ||<#dddddd> heat of combustion ||<#dddddd> A bomb or continuous flow calorimeter is used to show heating value of foods and fuel. ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.55 ||<#dddddd> specific heat of a gas ||<#dddddd> Heat a gas in a flask by discharging a capacitor through a thin constantan wire and measure the momentary increase in pressure on an attached water manometer. See AJP 33(1),18 [http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v33/i1/p18_s1] ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.60 ||<#dddddd> Clement's and Desormes' experiment ||<#dddddd> A 10 L flask fitted with a mercury manometer is over pressured and then the valve is quickly opened and shut. The ratio of pressures is related to the specific heats. ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.61 ||<#dddddd> Cp/Cv with water manometer ||<#dddddd> Replace the mercury in the oscillating column method with water provided the confined air is a large volume. See AJP 35(4),xvi [http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v35/i4/pxvi_s1] ||
|| 4B10.65 || Cp/Cv of air || A steel ball in a precision tube oscillates as gas escapes from a slightly overpressured flask. ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.70 ||<#dddddd> Ruchhardt's method for gamma ||<#dddddd> An ordinary glass tube is selected with a slight taper wider at the top. A throttle valve controls the inlet pressure and the oscillations of the ball in the tube are timed. See AJP 32(1), xiii [http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v32/i1/pxiii_s1] ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.72 ||<#dddddd> Ruchhardt's method - add mass ||<#dddddd> Add additional mass to the oscillating ball and plot period as a function of mass. Ruchhardt's apparatus is driven by a slow flow of gas and the ball is loaded with additional mass. See AJP 32(4),xvi [http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v32/i4/pxvi_s1] ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.73 ||<#dddddd> syringe Ruchhardt's experiment ||<#dddddd> A glass syringe replaces the precision ball in a precision tube and an accelerometer mounted on the syringe allows the oscillations to be displayed on an oscilloscope. See AJP 53(7),696 [http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v53/i7/p696_s1] ||
||<#dddddd> 4B10.75 ||<#dddddd> Ruchhardt's experiment ||<#dddddd> Measure the temperature in the flask with the oscillating balls. ||

= 4B20. Convection =
||<:10%>'''PIRA #'''||<:>'''Demonstration Name'''||<:60%>'''Abstract'''||
|| 4B20.10 || convection tube || Heat one side of a glass tube loop filled with water and insert some food coloring. ||
|| 4B20.20 || two chimney convection box || A candle burns under one chimney in a double chimney convection box. Smoke is used to indicate convection in the two chimney box. ||
|| 4B20.25 || convection chimney with vane || A candle in a chimney burns as long as there is a metal vane dividing the chimney into two parts. ||
||<#dddddd> 4B20.30 ||<#dddddd> convection chimney with confetti ||<#dddddd> ||
||<#dddddd> 4B20.40 ||<#dddddd> convection projection cell ||<#dddddd> An electric element heats water in the bottom of a projection cell. Diagram. ||
||<#dddddd> 4B20.41 ||<#dddddd> convection box ||<#dddddd> Shadow project convection in a 1 foot square box with hot and cold sinks on the sides. ||
||<#dddddd> 4B20.42 ||<#dddddd> projection cell ||<#dddddd> Introduce hot water at the bottom of cold or cold water at the top of warm in a projection cell. ||
|| 4B20.45 || burn your hand || Shadow project a Bunsen burner flame on a screen and hold your hand in the hot gas. Use a Bunsen burner, a hot pipe, dry ice, or ice water. ||

|| 4B20.50 || Barnard cell || A thin layer of paraffin with reflective aluminumflakes is heated until Barnard cells, or convection cells form. ||

= 4B30. Conduction =
||<:10%>'''PIRA #'''||<:>'''Demonstration Name'''||<:60%>'''Abstract'''||
|| 4B30.00 || Conduction || ||
|| 4B30.10 || conduction - dropping balls || ||
|| 4B30.10 || conduction - dropping balls || Waxed balls drop off various metal rods connected to a heat source as the heat is conducted. ||
|| 4B30.10 || conduction of heat || Waxed balls drop at different times from rods attached to a common heat source. ||
|| 4B30.11 || conduction - dropping balls || The center of a star configuration of five different metal bars is heated to melt wax at the far ends, dropping balls. ||
|| 4B30.12 || conduction - melting wax || ||
|| 4B30.12 || thermal conductivity || Dip rods in wax, then watch as the wax melts off. Time Lapse. ||
|| 4B30.15 || melting paraffin - sliding pointer || ||
|| 4B30.15 || sliding pointers || Vertical rods of different metals are soldered onto the bottom of a vessel filled with boiling water. Pointers held by some paraffin slide down as the rods heat. Diagram. ||
|| 4B30.20 || painted rods || ||
|| 4B30.20 || conduction of heat || Rods of different material are coated with heat sensitive paint and attached to a common heat source. ||
|| 4B30.20 || painted rods || Steam is passed through a manifold with heat sensitive paint coated rods of different materials. ||
|| 4B30.21 || conduction bars || Relative conductivities of bars of metals in a common copper block are indicated by match head ignition or temperature indicating paint. ||
|| 4B30.22 || iron and copper strips || Iron and copper strips are coated with "thermal color" and heated at one end. ||
|| 4B30.25 || four rods - heat conduction || ||
|| 4B30.25 || four rods - heat conduction || ||
|| 4B30.30 || copper and stainless tubes || ||
|| 4B30.30 || copper and stainless tubes || A contest is held between people holding copper and stainless tubes in twin acetylene torch flames. ||
|| 4B30.31 || poor thermal conduct. of stainless s || Heat a stainless tube with a blow torch until it is white hot and hold close to the hot spot. ||
|| 4B30.31 || stainless rod || Heat one end of a stainless steel rod white hot while holding the other end. ||
|| 4B30.32 || iron and aluminum rods || A student holds iron and aluminum rods in a burner flame. ||
|| 4B30.35 || toilet seats || ||
|| 4B30.35 || toilet seats || ||
|| 4B30.40 || wood and metal rod || Wrap a paper around a rod made of alternating sections of wood and metal and hold in a flame. ||
|| 4B30.41 || high conductivity of copper || Hold a burning cigarette on a handkerchief placed over a coin. ||
|| 4B30.42 || matches on hot plates || Matches are placed on plates of two different metals over burners. ||
|| 4B30.50 || heat propagation in a copper rod || ||
|| 4B30.50 || heat propagation in a copper rod || ||
|| 4B30.50 || propagation in a copper rod || Solder a copper-constantan thermocouple into a copper rod and thrust the end into a flame. ||
|| 4B30.51 || spreading heatwave || An aluminum bar has a series of small mirrors mounted on small bimetallic strips to allow projection of the curve of the temperature in the bar as it is heated. Construction details in appendix, p.1287. ||
|| 4B30.52 || dropping pennies || Pennies attached with wax will progressively drop off a bar as a Bunsen burner heats one end. ||
|| 4B30.53 || liquid crystal indicator || Liquid crystal indicator from Edmund Sci. was bonded to a strip and a plate of metal and the resulting color change compared well with a computer generated model. ||
|| 4B30.53 || temperature indicating paper || A copper bar is placed on temperature indicating paper and one end is heated. ||
|| 4B30.54 || heat transfer || A solid copper rod has holes bored to pass steam and cold water from the same end. Thermometers along the rod measure the heat transfer into the water. ||
|| 4B30.56 || anisotropic conduction || Conductivity is greater along the grain in wood and crystals. Heat the center of a thin board covered with a layer of paraffin and watch the melting pattern. ||
|| 4B30.58 || thermal vs. electrical conduction || A rod is fabricated with end sections of copper and a center section of constantan. Temperatures along the rod when heated differentially are compared with voltages along it while a potential is applied. ||
|| 4B30.59 || electrical analog of heat flow || A circuit that gives the electrical analog of heat conduction. ||
|| 4B30.60 || heat conductivity of water || Boil water in the top of a test tube while ice is held at the bottom. ||
|| 4B30.61 || heat conductivity of water || The bulb of a hot air thermometer is placed in water and a layer of inflammable liquid is poured on top and burned. ||
|| 4B30.65 || heat conduction in gases || Small double walled flasks are filled with ether, the jackets contain different gases. When placed in boiling water, the height of ether flames varies. ||
|| 4B30.66 || heat conductivity of CO2 || Author tried using dry ice to cool break the bolt. Nothing happened. ||
|| 4B30.71 || conduction of heat in a lamp || A carbon filament lamp is filled with different gases at various pressures and the brightness of the filament observed. ||
|| 4B30.72 || glowing tubes || Filaments in Pyrex tubes containing air, flowing hydrogen, and hydrogen at reduced pressure glow with different intensities. Picture. ||
|| 4B30.73 || double glow tube || A single length of Nichrome wire runs through two chambers allowing comparison of thermal conductivity of two gases and variation of pressure. ||

 * 4B30.10 [:RodsMarbles: 2 Rods with Marbles ]

 * [:NitrogenCannon :LN2 Cannon]

 * [:Conductometer: Conductometer]

 * 4B.30.40 [:WoodMetal: Wood Dowels With Brass Tube]

= 4B40. Radiation =
||<:10%>'''PIRA #'''||<:>'''Demonstration Name'''||<:60%>'''Abstract'''||
|| 4B40.00 || Radiation || ||
|| 4B40.10 || light the match || Light a match at the focus of one parabolic reflector with a heating element at the focus of another reflector. ||
|| 4B40.10 || light the match || Two parabolic reflectors are aligned across the table, a heat source at the focus of one reflector and a match at the focus of the other. ||
|| 4B40.10 || light the match || Use a homemade nichrome wire coil for the light the match demonstration. ||
|| 4B40.10 || transmission of radiant heat || A match at the focus of one parabolic reflector is lit by a heating element placed at the focus of another reflector. ||
|| 4B40.10 || light the match || Two parabolic mirrors are used to transmit radiation to light matches, etc. ||
|| 4B40.10 || heat focusing || Light a match using a heater and concave reflectors. Animation. ||
|| 4B40.11 || reflection of radiation || A beam from a heated metal ball in the focus of a parabolic mirror reflects off another parabolic or flat mirror to a thermopile. ||
|| 4B40.11 || radiation reflector || A heat source at the focal point of one concave reflector directs heat at a radiometer at the focus of a second concave reflector. ||
|| 4B40.12 || beakers of water at a distance || A thermopile. mounted the at focus of a parabolic mirror detects radiation differences from different colored beakers of water at 20'. ||
|| 4B40.13 || reflection of radiation || Polished sheet metal is used to reflect radiation onto a thermopile. A plate glass mirror is less effective due to IR absorption. ||
|| 4B40.20 || IR focusing || ||
|| 4B40.20 || light the match || Focus an arc lamp on a match with and without filters, use a CS2 and iodine in a round flask for a lens. ||
|| 4B40.20 || focusing IR radiation || A opaque flask of a solution of iodine in carbon disulfide serves as a lens to focus IR radiation. ||
|| 4B40.20 || infrared || Iodine dissolved in alcohol gives a filter transmitting in the IR but absorbing in the visible. Ignite a match in the focus of an arc lamp. ||
|| 4B40.21 || ice lens || Form an ice lens between two watch glasses. Focus the light from an arc lamp on a match head. ||
|| 4B40.30 || Leslie's cube || ||
|| 4B40.30 || radiation from a black box || Radiation from Leslie's cube is measured with a thermopile. ||
|| 4B40.30 || Leslie cube || Relative radiation from various surfaces at the same temperature is shown with a Leslie cube and thermopile. ||
|| 4B40.30 || radiation cube || Fill a Leslie cube with hot water and use a thermopile. to detect the radiation. ||
|| 4B40.32 || Leslie's cube || ||
|| 4B40.32 || Leslie's cube || Rotate the cube to demonstrate Lambert's law, move the thermopile. away to demonstrate the inverse square law, measure at several temperatures to demonstrate the fourth power law. ||
|| 4B40.33 || radiation and absorption || Two Leslie cubes form a differential thermoscope with a third between. Orient faces shiny to black. ||
|| 4B40.40 || two can radiation || ||
|| 4B40.40 || cooling cans || Cooling rates of shiny unpainted, black painted, and white painted cans. ||
|| 4B40.40 || two can radiation || Shiny and flat black cans filled with cool water warm up, cool off when filled with boiling water. ||
|| 4B40.45 || radiation from a shiny and black sur || A paper held close to a stove element is not scorched where the element is painted white. ||
|| 4B40.45 || stove element || A sheet of paper is held near a stove heating element painted half white and half black. ||
|| 4B40.48 || hot wire in a tube || A platinum wire is heated inside of a quartz tube showing transparent objects radiate less. ||
|| 4B40.50 || selective absorption and transmission || ||
|| 4B40.50 || selective absorption and transmissio || ||
|| 4B40.50 || selective absorption || Various screens (black bakelite, Corex red-purple, glass, water, quartz, etc.) are placed between a heat source and a thermopile. detector. ||
|| 4B40.50 || absorption and transmission || Clear heat absorbing and opaque heat transmission glass filters are inserted between a heat lamp and a radiometer detector. ||
|| 4B40.51 || absorption of radiation || A white card with letters in India ink is exposed lettered side to a hot source charring it locally where the letters are. ||
|| 4B40.52 || Leybold radiation screen || One side of a polished metal plate has a black letter, the other is covered with thermochrome paint. ||
|| 4B40.60 || black and white thermometers || ||
|| 4B40.60 || two thermoscopes || One thermoscope is painted white, the other black, and both are illuminated by a lamp. ||
|| 4B40.60 || surface absorption || A radiant heater is placed midway between two junctions of a demonstration thermocouple and the junctions are covered with black or white caps. ||
|| 4B40.60 || selective absorption || Focus a large light on a blackened match head, the clear glass bulb of a thermoscope, and the bulb covered with black paper. ||
|| 4B40.61 || surface absorption || A Leslie cube with opposite faces blackened is placed between two bulbs of a differential thermoscope. Blacken one bulb. ||
|| 4B40.62 || surface absorption || Make a special thermocouple of a sheet of copper with constantan wires attached opposite blackened and whitened areas. Shine a light and expose to a hot water container to show different response at different wavelengths. ||
|| 4B40.64 || radiation thermometers || A heat lamp directed at two thermometers will cause different temperature rises. One thermometer is in a chamber - (?). ||
|| 4B40.70 || soot and flour -nonlinear absorption || Add different amounts of carbon to flour and measure the reflectivity. ||

 * 4B40.10 [:LightMatch :Light the Match]
 * 4B40.30 [:LeslieCube: Leslie Cube]
= 4B50. Heat Transfer Applications =
||<:10%>'''PIRA #'''||<:>'''Demonstration Name'''||<:60%>'''Abstract'''||
|| 4B50.00 || Heat Transfer Applications || ||
|| 4B50.10 || four thermos bottles || ||
|| 4B50.10 || four thermos bottles || Monitor the temperatures of water in four thermos bottles with different combinations of vacuum and silvering. ||
|| 4B50.10 || thermal properties of dewars || Temperatures are recorded for cooling of four thermos bottles of different construction. ||
|| 4B50.10 || insulation (dewar flasks) || Hot water is placed in the four thermos bottles. ||
|| 4B50.11 || bad dewar || Evacuate a unsilvered dewar, pour in liquid air, let air into the space, see frost form. ||
|| 4B50.15 || four thermos bottles - LN2 || Pour liquid air into four thermos bottles to sort out conduction, convection and radiation. ||
|| 4B50.20 || boiling water in a paper cup || Burn one paper cup, boil water in another. ||
|| 4B50.20 || boil water in a paper cup || Fill a KFC bucket 1/8 full of water, boil the water with a Bunsen burner, and burn away the top part of the bucket with a propane torch. ||
|| 4B50.20 || insulation with asbestos || Fight asbestos abatement. Two identical cans of water, one wrapped with asbestos, cool. ||
|| 4B50.20 || radiation from different surfaces || Three cans, black, asbestos covered, and shiny, are filled with boiling water and left to cool. ||
|| 4B50.20 || surface radiation || An asbestos paper covered can cools faster than a shiny can. ||
|| 4B50.20 || boil water in a paper cup || Boil water in a paper container. ||
|| 4B50.20 || boiling water in a paper cup || Burn one paper cup, boil water in another. ||
|| 4B50.25 || water balloon and matches || ||
|| 4B50.25 || balloon and matches || ||
|| 4B50.25 || insulators || Show commercial insulating materials. Heat a penny red hot on your hand protected by 1/2" rock wool. ||
|| 4B50.25 || water balloon heat capacity || Pop a balloon with a flame, then heat water in another balloon. ||
|| 4B50.30 || Leydenfrost effect || ||
|| 4B50.30 || Leyden frost phenomenom || Drop water on a hot plate, liquid nitrogen on the lecture table. ||
|| 4B50.31 || spheroidal state || A nugget of silver heated red and plunged into water does not cause immediate boiling. ||
|| 4B50.32 || spheroidal state || A drop of water suspended from a glass tube above a hot plate is stable until the plate cools. ||
|| 4B50.32 || Leyden frost effect || Pour liquid air on your hand or roll it about on the top of your tongue. ||
|| 4B50.33 || Leyden frost phenomenom || Four demonstrations: floating liquid drops on their own vapor, delayed quenching, Boutigny bomb, and stick your finger in boiling oil. ||
|| 4B50.35 || finger in hot oil || ||
|| 4B50.35 || finger in oil || Heat oil in a beaker, cut a potato and cook a french fry, then wet you finger in a beaker of water and stick it in the hot oil. ||
|| 4B50.35 || spheroidal state || A wet finger can be dipped into molten lead. ||
|| 4B50.40 || reverse Leyden frost || ||
|| 4B50.40 || reverse Leyden frost || ||
|| 4B50.40 || reverse Leyden frost effect || Place a brass ball into liquid air in a clear dewar and observe the initial leidenfrost effect. When the ball is cold, place it in a flame and observe the reverse leidenfrost effect as frost forms on the ball while it is in the flame. ||
|| 4B50.60 || greenhouse effect || ||
|| 4B50.60 || greenhouse effect || The temperature of a closed bottle in direct sunlight is compared to the ambient temperature. ||
|| 4B50.61 || greenhouse effect chamber || A chamber with interchangeable windows and provisions to introduce CO2. ||
|| 4B50.62 || radiation and convection || Put a hot metal object in a smoke filled projection cell and the smoke will be repelled by radiation pressure. Convection will cause an upward clearing. ||
|| 4B50.70 || Davy lamp || A Bunsen burner will burn on top and bottom of two copper screens a few inches apart. ||
|| 4B50.70 || Davy safety lamp || Show that a Bunsen burner flame will not strike through to the other side of fine copper wire gauze. Direct a stream on gas at a lit Davy safety lamp. ||
|| 4B50.80 || conduction and convection - Pirani || The basic principles of the Pirani vacuum gauge. Heat a platinum wire in a flask until it glows dull red, then evacuate the flask and the wire will glow more brightly at the same voltage. ||
|| 4B50.90 || forced air calorimeter || Fans on either side of a 48 quart styrofoam cooler create a forced air calorimeter used in this example to measure the heat produced by a candle. ||

= 4B60. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat =
||<:10%>'''PIRA #'''||<:>'''Demonstration Name'''||<:60%>'''Abstract'''||
|| 4B60.00 || Mechanical Equivalent of Heat || ||
|| 4B60.10 || dropping lead shot || Drop a bag of lead shot is dropped several times and measure the temperature rise. ||
|| 4B60.10 || dropping lead shot || A bag of lead shot is dropped several times and the temperature rise is measured. ||
|| 4B60.10 || work into heat || Drop lead shot in a bag several times and compare the temperature before and after. ||
|| 4B60.10 || dropping lead shot || The temperature of a bag of lead shot is taken before and after being dropped repeatedly. A diagram of a projection thermometer is given. ||
|| 4B60.11 || invert tube of lead || ||
|| 4B60.11 || dropping lead shot || One or two Kg of lead shot in a mailing tube are inverted 100 times and the temperature rise is measured. ||
|| 4B60.11 || mechanical equivalent of heat || Flip a one meter tube containing lead shot ten times. A thermistor embedded in one end measures the temperature. ||
|| 4B60.12 || heating mercury by shaking || A nichrome - iron wire thermojunction is inserted into a bottle of mercury which is shaken vigorously. ||
|| 4B60.15 || hammer on lead || ||
|| 4B60.15 || hammer on lead || Hammer on a piece of lead that has an embedded thermocouple. ||
|| 4B60.15 || hammer on lead || Hammer on a piece of lead to heat it. A simple air thermoscope is shown. ||
|| 4B60.15 || heating lead by smashing || Hit a 250 g lead block with a heavy hammer and show the temperature rise. ||
|| 4B60.16 || drop ball on thermocouples || A steel ball is dropped onto an anvil holding a set of thermocouples embedded in solder beads. ||
|| 4B60.20 || copper barrel crank || ||
|| 4B60.20 || copper barrel crank || Crank a copper barrel that has copper webbing wrapped around it while under tension and measure the temperature rise of the water inside the barrel. ||
|| 4B60.20 || mechanical equivalent of heat || The temperature of a copper barrel filled with water with a copper braid under tension wrapped around it is measured before and after cranking. ||
|| 4B60.22 || motorized mech. eq. of heat || Continuous flow apparatus with counter rotating turbines powered by an electric motor. ||
|| 4B60.23 || Searle's apparatus || Searle's apparatus is used to obtain a numerical value of Joule's equivalent. Picture. ||
|| 4B60.24 || mech eq of heat || Picture of an elaborate apparatus to measure the mechanical equivalent of heat. Derivation. ||
|| 4B60.41 || heating by bending || Pass around a No. 14 iron wire for the students to bend. ||
|| 4B60.50 || bow and stick || ||
|| 4B60.50 || bow & stick || How to make a fire with a bow and stick. ||
|| 4B60.55 || boy scout fire maker || ||
|| 4B60.55 || boy scout fire maker || ||
|| 4B60.55 || fire maker || A motor shaft extended with a hardwood dowel is held against a wood block. ||
|| 4B60.55 || drill and dowel || Chuck up a dowel in an electric drill and make smoke by drilling a board. ||
|| 4B60.60 || flint and steel || Sparks from flint and steel or a grindstone show heat from work. ||
|| 4B60.70 || cork popper || ||
|| 4B60.70 || friction cannon || Pour ether, alcohol, or water into a tube, cork, and spin by a motor until the frictional heat causes enough vapor pressure to blow the cork. ||
|| 4B60.70 || ether friction gun || Heat ether by a motor driven friction device until a cork blows. ||
|| 4B60.70 || cork popper || Water is heated in a stoppered tube by a motorized friction device until the cork blows. ||
|| 4B60.75 || steam gun || Heat a tube until the cork pops off. ||

= 4B70. Adiabatic Processes =
||<:10%>'''PIRA #'''||<:>'''Demonstration Name'''||<:60%>'''Abstract'''||
|| 4B70.00 || Adiabatic Processes || ||
|| 4B70.10 || fire syringe || ||
|| 4B70.10 || light the cotton || Put a small piece of cotton in a glass tube and push down on the piston to light it. ||
|| 4B70.10 || light the cotton || A piece of cotton in a glass tube will ignite when a plunger is used to quickly compress the air. ||
|| 4B70.10 || fire syringe || Three fire syringes are shown. ||
|| 4B70.10 || fire syringe || Compress air in a glass tube to light a tuft of cotton. Slow motion photography. ||
|| 4B70.11 || match lighter || A match head placed in a cylinder lights when a tight fitting piston is quickly compressed. ||
|| 4B70.11 || light a match head || Push down hard on a piston in a close fitting tube to light a match head at the bottom. ||
|| 4B70.20 || expansion cloud chamber || ||
|| 4B70.20 || expansion cloud chamber || Pressurize a jug of saturated water vapor with and without smoke particles. ||
|| 4B70.20 || expansion chamber || A 1 L flask is fitted with a rubber bulb and a inlet for smoke. ||
|| 4B70.20 || expansion cloud chamber || Introduce smoke into a flask attached to a squeeze bulb through a pitchcock. ||
|| 4B70.21 || expansion cloud chamber || Put some smoke and alcohol in a stoppered flask and shake. When the stopper is released a fog forms. ||
|| 4B70.25 || pop the cork cooling || ||
|| 4B70.25 || big expansion cloud chamber || ||
|| 4B70.25 || cloud chambers || Pump a one gallon jug with a bicycle pump until the cork pops out. ||
|| 4B70.25 || adiabatic cooling || Pressurize a one gallon jar with a bicycle pump until the cork blows. Measure the temperature with a thermistor and computer. ||
|| 4B70.26 || adiabatic decompression || A laser beam is temporarily scattered when an air filled chamber is pumped down with a vacuum pump. ||
|| 4B70.30 || adiabatic heating and cooling || An air cylinder moves a piston back and forth and a thermocouple measures the temperature. ||
|| 4B70.31 || adiabatic compression || A thermopile. is constructed and put in the bottom of a tube in which air is compressed by a plunger. Instructions. ||
|| 4B70.35 || expansion chamber || Directions for making a temperature detector to insert into a flask that will be warmed and cooled by compression and expansion. ||
|| 4B70.36 || measuring adiabatic compression || Temperatures of fixed amounts of gases undergoing adiabatic compression are measured. Diagram, Picture, construction hints. ||
|| 4B70.37 || adiabatic cycles || A thermocouple connected to a lecture galvanometer shows temperature cycles as air in a test tube is compressed and expanded. ||
|| 4B70.40 || Joule-Kelvin coefficients || A thermocouple measures the temperature change as N2 cools on expansion and H2 heats on expansion. ||
||<#dddddd>Grayed Demos are either not available or haven't been built yet. ||
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[:Demonstrations:Demonstrations]
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[:Instructional:Home] = 4B10. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat =
||<10% style="text-align:center">'''PIRA #''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Demonstration Name''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Subsets'''||<60% style="text-align:center">'''Abstract''' ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.05 ||<#dddddd>specific heat of liquids problem ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A note on the inexplicably high specific heat of liquids. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v52/i9/p856_s1|AJP 52(9),856]] ||
||4B10.10 ||heat capacity || ||1) One liter of water in a beaker water and aluminum of 1 Kg total mass in another beaker are heated on the same hot plate. Display temperatures of both. 2) Two beakers, one with 1 Kg water and the other with .5 Kg water and .5 Kg lead are heated at the same rate. 3) Show temp on LED bar graph. ||
||4B10.15 ||water and oil on a hot plate || || ||
||4B10.15 ||water and oil || ||Heat two beakers on a single hot plate, each contains the same mass of either water or oil. ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.16 ||<#dddddd>iron and water ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Iron and a vessel of water with the same mass and area are heated on identical Bunsen burners. Dip your hand in the water and sprinkle it on the iron plate where it will sizzle. ||
||4B10.20 ||mixing water || ||Different masses of hot and cold water are mixed in a large beaker and the final temp is compared to the calculated value. ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.26 ||<#dddddd>calorimeter ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A calorimeter is used to measure the specific heat of lead. Known masses of lead and copper are heated and poured into calorimeters with a known mass of water. Specific heats are computed from initial and final temperatures. ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.27 ||<#dddddd>ice calorimeter ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Several different metals on the same mass are heated to the same temp and lowered into a line of crushed ice filled funnels. The melted water is collected in graduates. ||
||4B10.28 ||metals in water || ||Heat metals of the same mass and lower them into beakers containing the same amount of water at room temperature. ||
||4B10.30 ||specific heat with rods and wax || ||1) Five metals of the same mass are heated in boiling water and placed on a thin sheet of paraffin. 2) Several cylinders of the different metals with the same mass and diameter are heated in paraffin and transferred to a paraffin disc. 3) Heat equal mass cylinders of aluminum, steel, and lead and let them melt a path through honeycomb. ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.35 ||<#dddddd>specific heat at low temperatures ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Cylinders of the same size of aluminum and lead heat up at the same rate after being cooled in liquid nitrogen. ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.40 ||<#dddddd>differential thermoscope ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>The jacket areas of two unsilvered unevacuated dewar flasks are connected to a U tube and equal masses of water and mercury at 100 C are poured in. The U tube shows the difference in heat capacities. ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.50 ||<#dddddd>heat of combustion ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A bomb or continuous flow calorimeter is used to show heating value of foods and fuel. ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.55 ||<#dddddd>specific heat of a gas ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Heat a gas in a flask by discharging a capacitor through a thin constantan wire and measure the momentary increase in pressure on an attached water manometer. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v33/i1/p18_s1|AJP 33(1),18]] ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.60 ||<#dddddd>Clement's and Desormes' experiment ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A 10 L flask fitted with a mercury manometer is over pressured and then the valve is quickly opened and shut. The ratio of pressures is related to the specific heats. ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.61 ||<#dddddd>Cp/Cv with water manometer ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Replace the mercury in the oscillating column method with water provided the confined air is a large volume. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v35/i4/pxvi_s1|AJP 35(4),xvi]] ||
||4B10.65 ||Cp/Cv of air || ||A steel ball in a precision tube oscillates as gas escapes from a slightly overpressured flask. ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.70 ||<#dddddd>Ruchhardt's method for gamma ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>An ordinary glass tube is selected with a slight taper wider at the top. A throttle valve controls the inlet pressure and the oscillations of the ball in the tube are timed. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v32/i1/pxiii_s1|AJP 32(1), xiii]] ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.72 ||<#dddddd>Ruchhardt's method - add mass ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Add additional mass to the oscillating ball and plot period as a function of mass. Ruchhardt's apparatus is driven by a slow flow of gas and the ball is loaded with additional mass. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v32/i4/pxvi_s1|AJP 32(4),xvi]] ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.73 ||<#dddddd>syringe Ruchhardt's experiment ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A glass syringe replaces the precision ball in a precision tube and an accelerometer mounted on the syringe allows the oscillations to be displayed on an oscilloscope. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v53/i7/p696_s1|AJP 53(7),696]] ||
||<#dddddd>4B10.75 ||<#dddddd>Ruchhardt's experiment ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Measure the temperature in the flask with the oscillating balls. ||


= 4B20. Convection =
||<10% style="text-align:center">'''PIRA #''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Demonstration Name''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Subsets'''||<60% style="text-align:center">'''Abstract''' ||
||4B20.10 ||[[Convection_Tube]] ||pira200||Heat one side of a glass tube loop filled with water and insert some food coloring to trace the convection current. ||
||4B20.20 ||two chimney convection box || ||A candle burns under one chimney in a double chimney convection box. Smoke is used to indicate convection in the two chimney box. ||
||4B20.25 ||convection chimney with vane || ||A candle in a chimney burns as long as there is a metal vane dividing the chimney into two parts. ||
||<#dddddd>4B20.30 ||<#dddddd>convection chimney with confetti ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd> ||
||<#dddddd>4B20.40 ||<#dddddd>convection projection cell ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>An electric element heats water in the bottom of a projection cell. Diagram. ||
||<#dddddd>4B20.41 ||<#dddddd>convection box ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Shadow project convection in a 1 foot square box with hot and cold sinks on the sides. ||
||<#dddddd>4B20.42 ||<#dddddd>projection cell ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Introduce hot water at the bottom of cold or cold water at the top of warm in a projection cell. ||
||4B20.45 ||burn your hand || ||Shadow project a Bunsen burner flame on a screen and hold your hand in the hot gas. Use a Bunsen burner, a hot pipe, dry ice, or ice water. ||
||4B20.50 ||Barnard cell || ||A thin layer of paraffin with reflective aluminum flakes is heated until Barnard cells, or convection cells form. ||


= 4B30. Conduction =
||<10% style="text-align:center">'''PIRA #''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Demonstration Name''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Subsets'''||<60% style="text-align:center">'''Abstract''' ||
||4B30.10 ||[[RodsMarbles|2 Rods with Marbles]] || ||Waxed balls drop off various metal rods connected to a heat source as the heat is conducted. Waxed balls drop at different times from rods attached to a common heat source. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.11 ||<#dddddd>conduction - dropping balls ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>The center of a star configuration of five different metal bars is heated to melt wax at the far ends, dropping balls. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.12 ||<#dddddd>thermal conductivity ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Dip rods in wax, then watch as the wax melts off. Time Lapse. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.15 ||<#dddddd>sliding pointers ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Vertical rods of different metals are soldered onto the bottom of a vessel filled with boiling water. Pointers held by some paraffin slide down as the rods heat. Diagram. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.20 ||<#dddddd>painted rods ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Rods of different material are coated with heat sensitive paint and attached to a common heat source. Steam is passed through a manifold with heat sensitive paint coated rods of different materials. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.21 ||<#dddddd>conduction bars ||<#dddddd>pira200||<#dddddd>Relative conductivities of bars of metals in a common copper block are indicated by match head ignition or temperature indicating paint. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.22 ||<#dddddd>iron and copper strips ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Iron and copper strips are coated with "thermal color" and heated at one end. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.25 ||<#dddddd>four rods - heat conduction ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd> ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.30 ||<#dddddd>copper and stainless tubes ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A contest is held between people holding copper and stainless tubes in twin acetylene torch flames. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.31 ||<#dddddd>poor thermal conduct. of stainless s ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Heat a stainless rod/tube with a blow torch until it is white hot and hold the other end. ||
||4B30.32 ||iron and aluminum rods || ||A student holds iron and aluminum rods in a burner flame. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.35 ||<#dddddd>toilet seats ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd> ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.40 ||<#dddddd>wood and metal rod ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Wrap a paper around a rod made of alternating sections of wood and metal and hold in a flame. ||
||4B30.42 ||matches on hot plates || ||Matches are placed on plates of two different metals over burners. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.50 ||<#dddddd>heat propagation in a copper rod ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Solder a copper-constantan thermocouple into a copper rod and thrust the end into a flame. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.51 ||<#dddddd>spreading heatwave ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>An aluminum bar has a series of small mirrors mounted on small bimetallic strips to allow projection of the curve of the temperature in the bar as it is heated. Construction details in appendix, p.1287. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.53 ||<#dddddd>liquid crystal indicator ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Liquid crystal indicator from Edmund Sci. was bonded to a strip and a plate of metal and the resulting color change compared well with a computer generated model. A copper bar is placed on temperature indicating paper and one end is heated. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v41/i2/p281_s1|AJP 41(2),281]] ||
||4B30.54 ||heat transfer || ||A solid copper rod has holes bored to pass steam and cold water from the same end. Thermometers along the rod measure the heat transfer into the water. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.56 ||<#dddddd>anisotropic conduction ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Conductivity is greater along the grain in wood and crystals. Heat the center of a thin board covered with a layer of paraffin and watch the melting pattern. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.58 ||<#dddddd>thermal vs. electrical conduction ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A rod is fabricated with end sections of copper and a center section of constantan. Temperatures along the rod when heated differentially are compared with voltages along it while a potential is applied. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.59 ||<#dddddd>electrical analog of heat flow ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A circuit that gives the electrical analog of heat conduction. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v36/i2/p120_s1|AJP 29(8),549]] ||
||4B30.60 ||heat conductivity of water || ||Boil water in the top of a test tube while ice is held at the bottom. ||
||4B30.61 ||heat conductivity of water || ||The bulb of a hot air thermometer is placed in water and a layer of inflammable liquid is poured on top and burned. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.65 ||<#dddddd>heat conduction in gases ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Small double walled flasks are filled with ether, the jackets contain different gases. When placed in boiling water, the height of ether flames varies. ||
||4B30.66 ||heat conductivity of CO2 || ||Author tried using dry ice to cool break the bolt. Nothing happened. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v29/i8/p549_s1|AJP 29(8),549]] ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.71 ||<#dddddd>conduction of heat in a lamp ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A carbon filament lamp is filled with different gases at various pressures and the brightness of the filament observed. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.72 ||<#dddddd>glowing tubes ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Filaments in Pyrex tubes containing air, flowing hydrogen, and hydrogen at reduced pressure glow with different intensities. Picture. ||
||<#dddddd>4B30.73 ||<#dddddd>double glow tube ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A single length of Nichrome wire runs through two chambers allowing comparison of thermal conductivity of two gases and variation of pressure. ||


 * 4B30.10 [[RodsMarbles|2 Rods with Marbles]]

 * [[NitrogenCannon|LN2 Cannon]]

 * [[Conductometer]]

 * 4B.30.40 [[WoodMetal|Wood Dowels With Brass Tube]]

= 4B40. Radiation =
||<10% style="text-align:center">'''PIRA #''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Demonstration Name''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Subsets'''||<60% style="text-align:center">'''Abstract''' ||
||4B40.10 ||[[LightMatch|Light the Match]] ||pira200||Two parabolic reflectors are aligned across the table, a heat source at the focus of one reflector and a match at the focus of the other. Light the match at the focus of one parabolic reflector with the heating element at the focus of another reflector by transmitted radiation. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.11 ||<#dddddd>reflection of radiation ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A beam from a heated metal ball in the focus of a parabolic mirror reflects off another parabolic or flat mirror to a thermopile. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.12 ||<#dddddd>beakers of water at a distance ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A thermopile. mounted the at focus of a parabolic mirror detects radiation differences from different colored beakers of water at 20'. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.13 ||<#dddddd>reflection of radiation ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Polished sheet metal is used to reflect radiation onto a thermopile. A plate glass mirror is less effective due to IR absorption. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.20 ||<#dddddd>focusing IR radiation ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A opaque flask of a solution of iodine in carbon disulfide serves as a lens to focus IR radiation. Iodine dissolved in alcohol gives a filter transmitting in the IR but absorbing in the visible. Ignite a match in the focus of an arc lamp. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.21 ||<#dddddd>ice lens ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Form an ice lens between two watch glasses. Focus the light from an arc lamp on a match head. ||
||4B40.30 ||[[LeslieCube|Leslie Cube]] I || ||Relative radiation from various surfaces at the same temperature is shown with a Leslie cube and is measured with a thermopile. Fill a Leslie cube with hot water and use a thermopile to detect the radiation. ||
||4B40.32 ||[[LeslieCube|Leslie Cube]] II || ||Rotate the cube to demonstrate Lambert's law, move the thermopile. away to demonstrate the inverse square law, measure at several temperatures to demonstrate the fourth power law. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.33 ||<#dddddd>radiation and absorption ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Two Leslie cubes form a differential thermoscope with a third between. Orient faces shiny to black. ||
||4B40.40 ||cooling cans || ||Cooling rates of shiny unpainted, black painted, and white painted cans. Shiny and flat black cans filled with cool water warm up, cool off when filled with boiling water. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v58/i3/p244_s1|AJP 58(3),244]] ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.45 ||<#dddddd>stove element ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A sheet of paper is held near a stove heating element painted half white and half black. The element is not scorched when the element is painted white. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.48 ||<#dddddd>hot wire in a tube ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A platinum wire is heated inside of a quartz tube showing transparent objects radiate less. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.50 ||<#dddddd>selective absorption ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Various screens (black bakelite, Corex red-purple, glass, water, quartz, etc.) and Clear heat absorbing and opaque heat transmission glass filters are inserted between a heat lamp and a radiometer detector. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.51 ||<#dddddd>absorption of radiation ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A white card with letters in India ink is exposed lettered side to a hot source charring it locally where the letters are. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.52 ||<#dddddd>Leybold radiation screen ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>One side of a polished metal plate has a black letter, the other is covered with thermochrome paint. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.60 ||<#dddddd>two thermoscopes ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>One thermoscope is painted white, the other black, and both are illuminated by a lamp. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.60 ||<#dddddd>surface absorption I ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A radiant heater is placed midway between two junctions of a demonstration thermocouple and the junctions are covered with black or white caps. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.60 ||<#dddddd>selective absorption ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Focus a large light on a blackened match head, the clear glass bulb of a thermoscope, and the bulb covered with black paper. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.61 ||<#dddddd>surface absorption II ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A Leslie cube with opposite faces blackened is placed between two bulbs of a differential thermoscope. Blacken one bulb. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.62 ||<#dddddd>surface absorption III ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Make a special thermocouple of a sheet of copper with constant wires attached opposite blackened and whitened areas. Shine a light and expose to a hot water container to show different response at different wavelengths. ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.64 ||<#dddddd>radiation thermometers ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A heat lamp directed at two thermometers will cause different temperature rises. One thermometer is in a chamber - (?). ||
||<#dddddd>4B40.70 ||<#dddddd>soot and flour -nonlinear absorption ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Add different amounts of carbon to flour and measure the reflectivity. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v58/i7/p697_s1|AJP 58(7),697]] ||


 * 4B40.10 [[LightMatch|Light the Match]]
 * 4B40.30 [[LeslieCube|Leslie Cube]]

<<Anchor(HeatTransferApp)>>

= 4B50. Heat Transfer Applications =
||<10% style="text-align:center">'''PIRA #''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Demonstration Name''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Subsets'''||<60% style="text-align:center">'''Abstract''' ||
||<#dddddd>4B50.10 ||<#dddddd>four thermos bottles ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Monitor the temperatures of water in four thermos bottles with different combinations of vacuum and silvering. Hot water is placed in the four thermos bottles. ||
||<#dddddd>4B50.11 ||<#dddddd>bad dewar ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Evacuate a unsilvered dewar, pour in liquid air, let air into the space, see frost form. ||
||<#dddddd>4B50.15 ||<#dddddd>four thermos bottles - LN2 ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Pour liquid air into four thermos bottles to sort out conduction, convection and radiation. ||
||4B50.20 ||boiling water in a paper cup || ||Burn one paper cup, boil water in another. Fill a KFC bucket 1/8 full of water, boil the water with a Bunsen burner, and burn away the top part of the bucket with a propane torch. ||
||4B50.20 ||insulation with asbestos || ||Fight asbestos abatement. Three cans, black, asbestos covered, and shiny, are filled with boiling water and left to cool. An asbestos paper covered can cools faster than a shiny can. ||
||4B50.25 ||water balloon heat capacity ||pira200||Pop a balloon with a flame, then heat water in another balloon. ||
||4B50.30 ||[[Leyden_Frost_Phenomenon]] || ||Drop water on a hot plate and liquid nitrogen on the lecture table. ||
||<#dddddd>4B50.31 ||<#dddddd>spheroidal state ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A nugget of silver heated red and plunged into water does not cause immediate boiling. ||
||4B50.32 ||spheroidal state || ||A drop of water suspended from a glass tube above a hot plate is stable until the plate cools. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v46/i8/p825_s1|AJP 46(8),825]] ||
||4B50.32 ||Leyden frost effect || ||Pour liquid air on your hand or roll it about on the top of your tongue. ||
||<#dddddd>4B50.35 ||<#dddddd>finger in oil ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Heat oil in a beaker, cut a potato and cook a french fry, then wet you finger in a beaker of water and stick it in the hot oil. ||
||<#dddddd>4B50.35 ||<#dddddd>spheroidal state ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A wet finger can be dipped into molten lead. ||
||4B50.40 ||reverse Leyden frost effect || ||Place a brass ball into liquid air in a clear dewar and observe the initial leidenfrost effect. When the ball is cold, place it in a flame and observe the reverse leidenfrost effect as frost forms on the ball while it is in the flame. ||
||4B50.60 ||greenhouse effect || ||The temperature of a closed bottle in direct sunlight is compared to the ambient temperature. A chamber with interchangeable windows and provisions to introduce CO2. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v41/i3/p443_s1|AJP 41(3),443]] ||
||<#dddddd>4B50.62 ||<#dddddd>radiation and convection ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Put a hot metal object in a smoke filled projection cell and the smoke will be repelled by radiation pressure. Convection will cause an upward clearing. ||
||4B50.70 ||Davy lamp || ||A Bunsen burner will burn on top and bottom of two copper screens a few inches apart. Show that a Bunsen burner flame will not strike through to the other side of fine copper wire gauze. Direct a stream on gas at a lit Davy safety lamp. ||
||<#dddddd>4B50.80 ||<#dddddd>conduction and convection - Pirani ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>The basic principles of the Pirani vacuum gauge. Heat a platinum wire in a flask until it glows dull red, then evacuate the flask and the wire will glow more brightly at the same voltage. ||


= 4B60. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat =
||<10% style="text-align:center">'''PIRA #''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Demonstration Name''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Subsets'''||<60% style="text-align:center">'''Abstract''' ||
||4B60.10 ||heating lead shot in a bag ||pira200||A bag of lead shot is dropped several times and the temperature rise is measured. A diagram of a projection thermometer is given. ||
||<#dddddd>4B60.11 ||<#dddddd>mechanical equivalent of heat ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Flip a one meter tube containing lead shot ten times. A thermistor embedded in one end measures the temperature. ||
||<#dddddd>4B60.12 ||<#dddddd>heating mercury by shaking ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A nichrome - iron wire thermojunction is inserted into a bottle of mercury which is shaken vigorously. *Note: can do but not until safe method is found. ||
||4B60.15 ||hammer on lead || ||Hit a 250 g lead block that has an embedded thermocouple with a heavy hammer and show the temperature rise. A simple air thermoscope is shown. ||
||<#dddddd>4B60.16 ||<#dddddd>drop ball on thermocouples ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A steel ball is dropped onto an anvil holding a set of thermocouples embedded in solder beads. ||
||4B60.20 ||mechanical equivalent of heat || ||Crank a copper barrel that has copper webbing wrapped around it while under tension and measure the temperature rise of the water inside the barrel. The temperature of a copper barrel filled with water with a copper braid under tension wrapped around it is measured before and after cranking. ||
||<#dddddd>4B60.22 ||<#dddddd>motorized mech. eq. of heat ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Continuous flow apparatus with counter rotating turbines powered by an electric motor. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v28/i9/p793_s1|AJP 28(9),793]] ||
||<#dddddd>4B60.23 ||<#dddddd>Searle's apparatus ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Searle's apparatus is used to obtain a numerical value of Joule's equivalent. Picture. ||
||<#dddddd>4B60.24 ||<#dddddd>mech eq of heat ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Picture of an elaborate apparatus to measure the mechanical equivalent of heat. Derivation. ||
||<#dddddd>4B60.41 ||<#dddddd>heating by bending ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Pass around a No. 14 iron wire for the students to bend. ||
||<#dddddd>4B60.50 ||<#dddddd>bow & stick ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>How to make a fire with a bow and stick. ||
||4B60.55 ||drill and dowel || ||A motor shaft extended with a hardwood dowel is held against a wood block. Chuck up a dowel in an electric drill and make smoke by drilling the wood block. ||
||4B60.60 ||flint and steel || ||Sparks from flint and steel or a grindstone show heat from work. ||
||4B60.70 ||friction cannon || ||Pour ether, alcohol, or water into a tube topped with a cork, and spin by a motor until the frictional heat causes enough vapor pressure to blow the cork. ||
||4B60.75 ||steam gun || ||Heat a tube until the cork pops off. ||


= 4B70. Adiabatic Processes =
||<10% style="text-align:center">'''PIRA #''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Demonstration Name''' ||<style="text-align:center">'''Subsets'''||<60% style="text-align:center">'''Abstract''' ||
||4B70.10 ||fire syringe || ||A piece of cotton in a glass tube will ignite when a plunger is used to quickly compress the air. ||
||4B70.11 ||light a match head || ||Push down hard on a piston in a close fitting tube to light a match head at the bottom. ||
||4B70.20 ||expansion cloud chamber ||pira200||Pressurize a jug of saturated water vapor with and without smoke particles. Introduce smoke into a flask attached to a squeeze bulb through a pitchcock. ||
||4B70.21 ||expansion cloud chamber || ||Put some smoke and alcohol in a stoppered flask and shake. When the stopper is released a fog forms. ||
||4B70.25 ||adiabatic cooling || ||Pressurize a one gallon jar with a bicycle pump until the cork blows. Measure the temperature with a thermistor and computer. ||
||4B70.26 ||adiabatic decompression || ||A laser beam is temporarily scattered when an air filled chamber is pumped down with a vacuum pump. See [[http://ajp.aapt.org/resource/1/ajpias/v58/i11/p1112_s1|AJP 58(11),1112]] ||
||<#dddddd>4B70.30 ||<#dddddd>adiabatic heating and cooling ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>An air cylinder moves a piston back and forth and a thermocouple measures the temperature. ||
||<#dddddd>4B70.31 ||<#dddddd>adiabatic compression ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A thermopile. is constructed and put in the bottom of a tube in which air is compressed by a plunger. Instructions. ||
||<#dddddd>4B70.35 ||<#dddddd>expansion chamber ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Directions for making a temperature detector to insert into a flask that will be warmed and cooled by compression and expansion. ||
||<#dddddd>4B70.36 ||<#dddddd>measuring adiabatic compression ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>Temperatures of fixed amounts of gases undergoing adiabatic compression are measured. Diagram, Picture, construction hints. ||
||<#dddddd>4B70.37 ||<#dddddd>adiabatic cycles ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A thermocouple connected to a lecture galvanometer shows temperature cycles as air in a test tube is compressed and expanded. ||
||<#dddddd>4B70.40 ||<#dddddd>Joule-Kelvin coefficients ||<#dddddd> ||<#dddddd>A thermocouple measures the temperature change as N2 cools on expansion and H2 heats on expansion. ||


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||<25% style="text-align:center">[[PiraScheme#Thermodynamics|Table of Thermodynamics]] ||<25% style="text-align:center">[[ThermalProperties|Thermodynamics (4A): Thermal Properties of Matter]] ||<25% style="text-align:center">[[ChangeofState|Thermodynamics (4C): Change of State]] ||<25% style="text-align:center">[[Demonstrations|Lecture Demonstrations]] ||




[[Demonstrations]]

[[Instructional|Home]]

Table of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics (4A): Thermal Properties of Matter

Thermodynamics (4C): Change of State

Lecture Demonstrations

Heat and the First Law

PIRA classification 4B

Grayed Demos are either not available or haven't been built yet.

4B10. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Subsets

Abstract

4B10.05

specific heat of liquids problem

A note on the inexplicably high specific heat of liquids. See AJP 52(9),856

4B10.10

heat capacity

1) One liter of water in a beaker water and aluminum of 1 Kg total mass in another beaker are heated on the same hot plate. Display temperatures of both. 2) Two beakers, one with 1 Kg water and the other with .5 Kg water and .5 Kg lead are heated at the same rate. 3) Show temp on LED bar graph.

4B10.15

water and oil on a hot plate

4B10.15

water and oil

Heat two beakers on a single hot plate, each contains the same mass of either water or oil.

4B10.16

iron and water

Iron and a vessel of water with the same mass and area are heated on identical Bunsen burners. Dip your hand in the water and sprinkle it on the iron plate where it will sizzle.

4B10.20

mixing water

Different masses of hot and cold water are mixed in a large beaker and the final temp is compared to the calculated value.

4B10.26

calorimeter

A calorimeter is used to measure the specific heat of lead. Known masses of lead and copper are heated and poured into calorimeters with a known mass of water. Specific heats are computed from initial and final temperatures.

4B10.27

ice calorimeter

Several different metals on the same mass are heated to the same temp and lowered into a line of crushed ice filled funnels. The melted water is collected in graduates.

4B10.28

metals in water

Heat metals of the same mass and lower them into beakers containing the same amount of water at room temperature.

4B10.30

specific heat with rods and wax

1) Five metals of the same mass are heated in boiling water and placed on a thin sheet of paraffin. 2) Several cylinders of the different metals with the same mass and diameter are heated in paraffin and transferred to a paraffin disc. 3) Heat equal mass cylinders of aluminum, steel, and lead and let them melt a path through honeycomb.

4B10.35

specific heat at low temperatures

Cylinders of the same size of aluminum and lead heat up at the same rate after being cooled in liquid nitrogen.

4B10.40

differential thermoscope

The jacket areas of two unsilvered unevacuated dewar flasks are connected to a U tube and equal masses of water and mercury at 100 C are poured in. The U tube shows the difference in heat capacities.

4B10.50

heat of combustion

A bomb or continuous flow calorimeter is used to show heating value of foods and fuel.

4B10.55

specific heat of a gas

Heat a gas in a flask by discharging a capacitor through a thin constantan wire and measure the momentary increase in pressure on an attached water manometer. See AJP 33(1),18

4B10.60

Clement's and Desormes' experiment

A 10 L flask fitted with a mercury manometer is over pressured and then the valve is quickly opened and shut. The ratio of pressures is related to the specific heats.

4B10.61

Cp/Cv with water manometer

Replace the mercury in the oscillating column method with water provided the confined air is a large volume. See AJP 35(4),xvi

4B10.65

Cp/Cv of air

A steel ball in a precision tube oscillates as gas escapes from a slightly overpressured flask.

4B10.70

Ruchhardt's method for gamma

An ordinary glass tube is selected with a slight taper wider at the top. A throttle valve controls the inlet pressure and the oscillations of the ball in the tube are timed. See AJP 32(1), xiii

4B10.72

Ruchhardt's method - add mass

Add additional mass to the oscillating ball and plot period as a function of mass. Ruchhardt's apparatus is driven by a slow flow of gas and the ball is loaded with additional mass. See AJP 32(4),xvi

4B10.73

syringe Ruchhardt's experiment

A glass syringe replaces the precision ball in a precision tube and an accelerometer mounted on the syringe allows the oscillations to be displayed on an oscilloscope. See AJP 53(7),696

4B10.75

Ruchhardt's experiment

Measure the temperature in the flask with the oscillating balls.

4B20. Convection

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Subsets

Abstract

4B20.10

Convection_Tube

pira200

Heat one side of a glass tube loop filled with water and insert some food coloring to trace the convection current.

4B20.20

two chimney convection box

A candle burns under one chimney in a double chimney convection box. Smoke is used to indicate convection in the two chimney box.

4B20.25

convection chimney with vane

A candle in a chimney burns as long as there is a metal vane dividing the chimney into two parts.

4B20.30

convection chimney with confetti

4B20.40

convection projection cell

An electric element heats water in the bottom of a projection cell. Diagram.

4B20.41

convection box

Shadow project convection in a 1 foot square box with hot and cold sinks on the sides.

4B20.42

projection cell

Introduce hot water at the bottom of cold or cold water at the top of warm in a projection cell.

4B20.45

burn your hand

Shadow project a Bunsen burner flame on a screen and hold your hand in the hot gas. Use a Bunsen burner, a hot pipe, dry ice, or ice water.

4B20.50

Barnard cell

A thin layer of paraffin with reflective aluminum flakes is heated until Barnard cells, or convection cells form.

4B30. Conduction

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Subsets

Abstract

4B30.10

2 Rods with Marbles

Waxed balls drop off various metal rods connected to a heat source as the heat is conducted. Waxed balls drop at different times from rods attached to a common heat source.

4B30.11

conduction - dropping balls

The center of a star configuration of five different metal bars is heated to melt wax at the far ends, dropping balls.

4B30.12

thermal conductivity

Dip rods in wax, then watch as the wax melts off. Time Lapse.

4B30.15

sliding pointers

Vertical rods of different metals are soldered onto the bottom of a vessel filled with boiling water. Pointers held by some paraffin slide down as the rods heat. Diagram.

4B30.20

painted rods

Rods of different material are coated with heat sensitive paint and attached to a common heat source. Steam is passed through a manifold with heat sensitive paint coated rods of different materials.

4B30.21

conduction bars

pira200

Relative conductivities of bars of metals in a common copper block are indicated by match head ignition or temperature indicating paint.

4B30.22

iron and copper strips

Iron and copper strips are coated with "thermal color" and heated at one end.

4B30.25

four rods - heat conduction

4B30.30

copper and stainless tubes

A contest is held between people holding copper and stainless tubes in twin acetylene torch flames.

4B30.31

poor thermal conduct. of stainless s

Heat a stainless rod/tube with a blow torch until it is white hot and hold the other end.

4B30.32

iron and aluminum rods

A student holds iron and aluminum rods in a burner flame.

4B30.35

toilet seats

4B30.40

wood and metal rod

Wrap a paper around a rod made of alternating sections of wood and metal and hold in a flame.

4B30.42

matches on hot plates

Matches are placed on plates of two different metals over burners.

4B30.50

heat propagation in a copper rod

Solder a copper-constantan thermocouple into a copper rod and thrust the end into a flame.

4B30.51

spreading heatwave

An aluminum bar has a series of small mirrors mounted on small bimetallic strips to allow projection of the curve of the temperature in the bar as it is heated. Construction details in appendix, p.1287.

4B30.53

liquid crystal indicator

Liquid crystal indicator from Edmund Sci. was bonded to a strip and a plate of metal and the resulting color change compared well with a computer generated model. A copper bar is placed on temperature indicating paper and one end is heated. See AJP 41(2),281

4B30.54

heat transfer

A solid copper rod has holes bored to pass steam and cold water from the same end. Thermometers along the rod measure the heat transfer into the water.

4B30.56

anisotropic conduction

Conductivity is greater along the grain in wood and crystals. Heat the center of a thin board covered with a layer of paraffin and watch the melting pattern.

4B30.58

thermal vs. electrical conduction

A rod is fabricated with end sections of copper and a center section of constantan. Temperatures along the rod when heated differentially are compared with voltages along it while a potential is applied.

4B30.59

electrical analog of heat flow

A circuit that gives the electrical analog of heat conduction. See AJP 29(8),549

4B30.60

heat conductivity of water

Boil water in the top of a test tube while ice is held at the bottom.

4B30.61

heat conductivity of water

The bulb of a hot air thermometer is placed in water and a layer of inflammable liquid is poured on top and burned.

4B30.65

heat conduction in gases

Small double walled flasks are filled with ether, the jackets contain different gases. When placed in boiling water, the height of ether flames varies.

4B30.66

heat conductivity of CO2

Author tried using dry ice to cool break the bolt. Nothing happened. See AJP 29(8),549

4B30.71

conduction of heat in a lamp

A carbon filament lamp is filled with different gases at various pressures and the brightness of the filament observed.

4B30.72

glowing tubes

Filaments in Pyrex tubes containing air, flowing hydrogen, and hydrogen at reduced pressure glow with different intensities. Picture.

4B30.73

double glow tube

A single length of Nichrome wire runs through two chambers allowing comparison of thermal conductivity of two gases and variation of pressure.

4B40. Radiation

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Subsets

Abstract

4B40.10

Light the Match

pira200

Two parabolic reflectors are aligned across the table, a heat source at the focus of one reflector and a match at the focus of the other. Light the match at the focus of one parabolic reflector with the heating element at the focus of another reflector by transmitted radiation.

4B40.11

reflection of radiation

A beam from a heated metal ball in the focus of a parabolic mirror reflects off another parabolic or flat mirror to a thermopile.

4B40.12

beakers of water at a distance

A thermopile. mounted the at focus of a parabolic mirror detects radiation differences from different colored beakers of water at 20'.

4B40.13

reflection of radiation

Polished sheet metal is used to reflect radiation onto a thermopile. A plate glass mirror is less effective due to IR absorption.

4B40.20

focusing IR radiation

A opaque flask of a solution of iodine in carbon disulfide serves as a lens to focus IR radiation. Iodine dissolved in alcohol gives a filter transmitting in the IR but absorbing in the visible. Ignite a match in the focus of an arc lamp.

4B40.21

ice lens

Form an ice lens between two watch glasses. Focus the light from an arc lamp on a match head.

4B40.30

Leslie Cube I

Relative radiation from various surfaces at the same temperature is shown with a Leslie cube and is measured with a thermopile. Fill a Leslie cube with hot water and use a thermopile to detect the radiation.

4B40.32

Leslie Cube II

Rotate the cube to demonstrate Lambert's law, move the thermopile. away to demonstrate the inverse square law, measure at several temperatures to demonstrate the fourth power law.

4B40.33

radiation and absorption

Two Leslie cubes form a differential thermoscope with a third between. Orient faces shiny to black.

4B40.40

cooling cans

Cooling rates of shiny unpainted, black painted, and white painted cans. Shiny and flat black cans filled with cool water warm up, cool off when filled with boiling water. See AJP 58(3),244

4B40.45

stove element

A sheet of paper is held near a stove heating element painted half white and half black. The element is not scorched when the element is painted white.

4B40.48

hot wire in a tube

A platinum wire is heated inside of a quartz tube showing transparent objects radiate less.

4B40.50

selective absorption

Various screens (black bakelite, Corex red-purple, glass, water, quartz, etc.) and Clear heat absorbing and opaque heat transmission glass filters are inserted between a heat lamp and a radiometer detector.

4B40.51

absorption of radiation

A white card with letters in India ink is exposed lettered side to a hot source charring it locally where the letters are.

4B40.52

Leybold radiation screen

One side of a polished metal plate has a black letter, the other is covered with thermochrome paint.

4B40.60

two thermoscopes

One thermoscope is painted white, the other black, and both are illuminated by a lamp.

4B40.60

surface absorption I

A radiant heater is placed midway between two junctions of a demonstration thermocouple and the junctions are covered with black or white caps.

4B40.60

selective absorption

Focus a large light on a blackened match head, the clear glass bulb of a thermoscope, and the bulb covered with black paper.

4B40.61

surface absorption II

A Leslie cube with opposite faces blackened is placed between two bulbs of a differential thermoscope. Blacken one bulb.

4B40.62

surface absorption III

Make a special thermocouple of a sheet of copper with constant wires attached opposite blackened and whitened areas. Shine a light and expose to a hot water container to show different response at different wavelengths.

4B40.64

radiation thermometers

A heat lamp directed at two thermometers will cause different temperature rises. One thermometer is in a chamber - (?).

4B40.70

soot and flour -nonlinear absorption

Add different amounts of carbon to flour and measure the reflectivity. See AJP 58(7),697

4B50. Heat Transfer Applications

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Subsets

Abstract

4B50.10

four thermos bottles

Monitor the temperatures of water in four thermos bottles with different combinations of vacuum and silvering. Hot water is placed in the four thermos bottles.

4B50.11

bad dewar

Evacuate a unsilvered dewar, pour in liquid air, let air into the space, see frost form.

4B50.15

four thermos bottles - LN2

Pour liquid air into four thermos bottles to sort out conduction, convection and radiation.

4B50.20

boiling water in a paper cup

Burn one paper cup, boil water in another. Fill a KFC bucket 1/8 full of water, boil the water with a Bunsen burner, and burn away the top part of the bucket with a propane torch.

4B50.20

insulation with asbestos

Fight asbestos abatement. Three cans, black, asbestos covered, and shiny, are filled with boiling water and left to cool. An asbestos paper covered can cools faster than a shiny can.

4B50.25

water balloon heat capacity

pira200

Pop a balloon with a flame, then heat water in another balloon.

4B50.30

Leyden_Frost_Phenomenon

Drop water on a hot plate and liquid nitrogen on the lecture table.

4B50.31

spheroidal state

A nugget of silver heated red and plunged into water does not cause immediate boiling.

4B50.32

spheroidal state

A drop of water suspended from a glass tube above a hot plate is stable until the plate cools. See AJP 46(8),825

4B50.32

Leyden frost effect

Pour liquid air on your hand or roll it about on the top of your tongue.

4B50.35

finger in oil

Heat oil in a beaker, cut a potato and cook a french fry, then wet you finger in a beaker of water and stick it in the hot oil.

4B50.35

spheroidal state

A wet finger can be dipped into molten lead.

4B50.40

reverse Leyden frost effect

Place a brass ball into liquid air in a clear dewar and observe the initial leidenfrost effect. When the ball is cold, place it in a flame and observe the reverse leidenfrost effect as frost forms on the ball while it is in the flame.

4B50.60

greenhouse effect

The temperature of a closed bottle in direct sunlight is compared to the ambient temperature. A chamber with interchangeable windows and provisions to introduce CO2. See AJP 41(3),443

4B50.62

radiation and convection

Put a hot metal object in a smoke filled projection cell and the smoke will be repelled by radiation pressure. Convection will cause an upward clearing.

4B50.70

Davy lamp

A Bunsen burner will burn on top and bottom of two copper screens a few inches apart. Show that a Bunsen burner flame will not strike through to the other side of fine copper wire gauze. Direct a stream on gas at a lit Davy safety lamp.

4B50.80

conduction and convection - Pirani

The basic principles of the Pirani vacuum gauge. Heat a platinum wire in a flask until it glows dull red, then evacuate the flask and the wire will glow more brightly at the same voltage.

4B60. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Subsets

Abstract

4B60.10

heating lead shot in a bag

pira200

A bag of lead shot is dropped several times and the temperature rise is measured. A diagram of a projection thermometer is given.

4B60.11

mechanical equivalent of heat

Flip a one meter tube containing lead shot ten times. A thermistor embedded in one end measures the temperature.

4B60.12

heating mercury by shaking

A nichrome - iron wire thermojunction is inserted into a bottle of mercury which is shaken vigorously. *Note: can do but not until safe method is found.

4B60.15

hammer on lead

Hit a 250 g lead block that has an embedded thermocouple with a heavy hammer and show the temperature rise. A simple air thermoscope is shown.

4B60.16

drop ball on thermocouples

A steel ball is dropped onto an anvil holding a set of thermocouples embedded in solder beads.

4B60.20

mechanical equivalent of heat

Crank a copper barrel that has copper webbing wrapped around it while under tension and measure the temperature rise of the water inside the barrel. The temperature of a copper barrel filled with water with a copper braid under tension wrapped around it is measured before and after cranking.

4B60.22

motorized mech. eq. of heat

Continuous flow apparatus with counter rotating turbines powered by an electric motor. See AJP 28(9),793

4B60.23

Searle's apparatus

Searle's apparatus is used to obtain a numerical value of Joule's equivalent. Picture.

4B60.24

mech eq of heat

Picture of an elaborate apparatus to measure the mechanical equivalent of heat. Derivation.

4B60.41

heating by bending

Pass around a No. 14 iron wire for the students to bend.

4B60.50

bow & stick

How to make a fire with a bow and stick.

4B60.55

drill and dowel

A motor shaft extended with a hardwood dowel is held against a wood block. Chuck up a dowel in an electric drill and make smoke by drilling the wood block.

4B60.60

flint and steel

Sparks from flint and steel or a grindstone show heat from work.

4B60.70

friction cannon

Pour ether, alcohol, or water into a tube topped with a cork, and spin by a motor until the frictional heat causes enough vapor pressure to blow the cork.

4B60.75

steam gun

Heat a tube until the cork pops off.

4B70. Adiabatic Processes

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Subsets

Abstract

4B70.10

fire syringe

A piece of cotton in a glass tube will ignite when a plunger is used to quickly compress the air.

4B70.11

light a match head

Push down hard on a piston in a close fitting tube to light a match head at the bottom.

4B70.20

expansion cloud chamber

pira200

Pressurize a jug of saturated water vapor with and without smoke particles. Introduce smoke into a flask attached to a squeeze bulb through a pitchcock.

4B70.21

expansion cloud chamber

Put some smoke and alcohol in a stoppered flask and shake. When the stopper is released a fog forms.

4B70.25

adiabatic cooling

Pressurize a one gallon jar with a bicycle pump until the cork blows. Measure the temperature with a thermistor and computer.

4B70.26

adiabatic decompression

A laser beam is temporarily scattered when an air filled chamber is pumped down with a vacuum pump. See AJP 58(11),1112

4B70.30

adiabatic heating and cooling

An air cylinder moves a piston back and forth and a thermocouple measures the temperature.

4B70.31

adiabatic compression

A thermopile. is constructed and put in the bottom of a tube in which air is compressed by a plunger. Instructions.

4B70.35

expansion chamber

Directions for making a temperature detector to insert into a flask that will be warmed and cooled by compression and expansion.

4B70.36

measuring adiabatic compression

Temperatures of fixed amounts of gases undergoing adiabatic compression are measured. Diagram, Picture, construction hints.

4B70.37

adiabatic cycles

A thermocouple connected to a lecture galvanometer shows temperature cycles as air in a test tube is compressed and expanded.

4B70.40

Joule-Kelvin coefficients

A thermocouple measures the temperature change as N2 cools on expansion and H2 heats on expansion.


Table of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics (4A): Thermal Properties of Matter

Thermodynamics (4C): Change of State

Lecture Demonstrations

Demonstrations

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