Polarization

PIRA classification 6H

Grayed Demos are either not available or haven't been built yet.

6H10. Dichroic Polarization

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

6H10.05

generating polarized light

Lists all methods of generating polarized light.

6H10.06

many light demonstrations

Strain patterns, polarization by reflection, pile of plates, scattering, rotary dispersion, the Faraday effect, interference in polarized white light, double refraction, polarizing microscope, double refraction in sticky tape.

6H10.10

polaroids on the overhead

Show polarization with two sheets of polaroid and a pair of sunglasses on an overhead projector.

6H10.10

polaroids on the overhead

Two sheets of Polaroid and a pair of sunglasses are provided with an overhead projector.

6H10.10

polariods on overhead

Commercially available polarizing plates are now available. (1930's)

6H10.10

polaroid sheets crossed and uncrosse

Two Polaroid sheets are partially overlapped while aligned and at 90 degrees.

6H10.11

polaroids

A beam from an arc lamp is directed through two Polaroid sheets.

6H10.15

polarization kit

Polaroid sheets for the overhead plus a lot of other stuff.

6H10.20

microwave polarization

Hold a grid of parallel wires in a microwave beam and rotate the grid.

6H10.20

microwave polarization

A "hamburger grill" filter is used to demonstrate polarization from a 12 cm dipole.

6H10.20

microwave polarization

A grid of parallel wires is held in a microwave beam.

6H10.20

microwave polarization

Microwave polarization is shown by rotating the receiver or using a grating.

6H10.20

microwave polarization

A slotted disc is rotated in the microwave beam.

6H10.30

polarization - mechanical model

Two boxes, one a polarizer and the other an analyzer, are built with a center slot that can be oriented either horizontally or vertically. Use with waves on a rubber hose.

6H10.31

polarization - mechanical model

A pendulum is hung from a long strut restrained by slack cords. Circular motion of the pendulum will be damped into a line by the motion of the strut.

6H10.40

polaroids cut at 45 degrees

Cut squares of Polaroid so the axes are at 45 degrees. Now turning one upside down causes cancellation.

6H20. Polarization by Reflection

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

6H20.05

making black glass

Eliminate the reflection off the second surface of a glass plate with a Canada balsam and lampblack suspension on the back side.

6H20.10

Brewster's angle

Rotate a polariod filter in a beam that reflects at Brewster's angle off a glass onto a screen.

6H20.10

Brewster's angle

A beam of white light is reflected off a sheet of black glass at Brewster's angle onto the wall. A Polaroid is provided to test.

6H20.10

polarization by reflection

Rotate a Polaroid filter in a beam that reflects off a glass onto a screen.

6H20.11

tilt the windowpane

Reflect plane polarized light off a window pane and vary the angle of incidence through Brewster's angle.

6H20.12

Brewster's angle with laser

Using horizontally polarized laser light, rotate a glass plate through Brewster's angle to observe a null.

6H20.12

polarization of the laser beam

Rotate a Polaroid in the beam of a laser with Brewster's angle mirrors.

6H20.15

microwave Brewster's angle

A block of paraffin is tilted until there is a minimum of transmitted radiation.

6H20.20

polarization from two plates

Two black glass mirrors - one fixed and the other rotates.

6H20.20

polarization of double reflection

Reflect light off a black mirror onto a second rotating black mirror to produce extinction.

6H20.20

double mirror Brewster's angle

Two glass plates are mounted in a box at Brewster's angle with the second able to rotate around the axis of the incident light.

6H20.20

double reflection polarization

Direct unpolarized light at a glass plate at 57 degrees, then to another plate at the same angle of incidence and perpendicular to the polarized light.

6H20.20

polarization by double reflection

Offset a beam of light by double reflection off glass, then rotate the first glass 90 degrees to obtain extinction. Replace the glass with metal mirrors and no polarization takes place.

6H20.21

Norrenberg's polariscope

Light strikes two black glass plates in succession, each at 57 degrees. Rotate the second glass plate and replace it with a mirror.

6H20.25

large scale polarizer

A large box with two black glass plates gives an extended source of plane polarized light.

6H20.30

Brewster's cone

A black glass cone at Brewster's angle.

6H20.31

pyramid method

Illuminate a rotatable pyramid made of four triangles of black glass mounted at 57 degrees with the base with plane polarized light.

6H20.40

stack of plates

A stack of glass plated at 57 degrees will transmit and reflect light that is cross polarized.

6H30. Circular Polarization

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

6H30.01

circular polarization model

One vector moves along with a fixed orientation in space while five others, at quarter wavelengths, rotate.

6H30.10

three polaroids

Three sheets of Polaroid are provided with an overhead projector.

6H30.10

rotation by polarizing filter

Stick a third sheet between crossed Polaroids

6H30.30

barber pole

A beam of polarized light is rotated when directed up a vertical tube filled with sugar solution.

6H30.30

barber pole

Show a beam of polarized light up through a tube with a sugar solution and scattering centers. The beam rotates and colors are separated.

6H30.30

barbershop sugar tube

Illuminate a tube of corn syrup from the bottom. Insert and rotate a Polaroid filter between the light and tube.

6H30.35

laser and quinine sulfate

Pass a polarized laser beam through a cylinder filled with a quinine sulfate solution.

6H30.40

Karo syrup

Insert a tube of liquid sugar between crossed polaroids.

6H30.40

karo syrup tank

Fill an aquarium with karo syrup and insert glass objects - prism, block, balls. View the collection through motorized crossed Polaroids

6H30.40

karo syrup

Place a bottle of Karo syrup between crossed Polaroids

6H30.40

rotation by sugar solution

Insert a tube of sugar solution between crossed Polaroids

6H30.40

optical activity in corn syrup

A bottle of corn syrup between Polaroids, three overlapping containers of equal thickness between Polaroids

6H30.41

Karo syrup prism

Colors change as one Polaroid is rotated in a Karo syrup prism between crossed Polaroids

6H30.42

three tanks

Compare the rotation of plane polarized light in tanks containing sugar solution, turpentine, and water.

6H30.45

quartz "biplate"

A quartz "biplate" is set between two crossed Polaroids at 45 degrees, then a tube of sugar solution is also inserted and rotated.

6H30.70

microwave optical activity

A styrofoam box contains 1200 coils of wire aligned in an array and wound in the same sense will rotate microwave radiation.

6H30.71

microwave optical rotation

A microwave analog of optical rotation in cholesteric liquid crystals. Plastic sheets with small parallel wires are stacked so the wires on successive layers vary in a screw type fashion.

6H30.80

Faraday rotation

Polarized light is passed through holes in an electromagnet bored parallel with the magnetic field. a specimen is placed in the magnet and the rotation is determined when the magnet is energized.

6H30.81

Faraday rotation

Insert a partially filled glass container of Halowax or carbon tetrachloride into the core of a solenoid between crossed Polaroids

6H30.82

rotation by magnetic field

A CS2 cell placed in a solenoid rotates the plane of polarization on light.

6H35. Birefringence

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

6H35.10

two calcite crystals

Use a second calcite crystal to show the polarization of the ordinary and extraordinary rays.

6H35.10

two calcite crystals

Use a second calcite crystal to show the polarization of the ordinary and extraordinary rays.

6H35.15

calcite and Polaroid on OH

6H35.15

birefringent crystal

Rotate a calcite crystal on an overhead projector covered except for a small hole. Use a Polaroid sheet to check polarity.

6H35.15

ordinary and extraordinary ray

Rotate a calcite crystal with one beam entering and two will emerge, one on axis and the other rotating around.

6H35.15

birefringent crystal

Project a hole in a strongly illuminated cardboard onto a screen through a calcite crystal. Interpose and rotate a polarizing plate to make the two images disappear alternately, or use a Wollaston prism.

6H35.15

double refraction in calcite

Place a calcite crystal over printed material or a metal plate with a small hole.

6H35.17

plexiglas birefringence

Show birefringence of a Plexiglas rod directly with a linearly polarized laser. Also easily construct half and quarter wave plates.

6H35.20

birefringence crystal model

A flexible crystal model is used to show how index of refraction can vary in a crystal.

6H35.21

pendulum model

Strike a pendulum with a blow, then wait 1/4, 1/2, or 3/4 period and strike another equal blow at right angles to the first.

6H35.21

model of double refraction

A double pendulum displaced in an oblique direction will move in a curved orbit.

6H35.22

wood stick polarization wave models

Stick models of plane and circular polarized light.

6H35.23

retardation plate models

Fifteen models of retardation plates. Reference: AJP 21(9),466-7.

6H35.24

wavefront models

Wire models show spherical and elliptical wavefronts in crystals.

6H35.25

birefringent crystal axes

Examine calcite crystals cut perpendicular, parallel, and along the cleavage axis under a microscope.

6H35.30

Nichol prism

One of a pair of Nichol prisms is rotated as a beam of light from an arc lamp is projected through.

6H35.31

Nichol prism model

Construct a wire frame model to show how calcite crystals are cut to form a Nichol prism.

6H35.32

polarizing crystals

Explain the action of tourmaline crystals and the Nicol prism with models.

6H35.40

quarter-wave plate

Insert a quarter-wave plate between Nichol prisms at 45 degrees giving circular polarization.

6H35.40

quarter wave plate

Place a quarter wave disc between a Polaroid and a mirror.

6H35.41

mechanical model half wave plate

An anisotropic spring and metal ball system is the mechanical analog of a half-wave plate.

6H35.44

half and quarter wave plates

Use half and quarter wave plates with polarized sodium light.

6H35.45

half-wave plate

Insert a half wave plate between Nichol prisms at 45 degrees giving plane polarized light.

6H35.45

half wave plate

Use a quartz wedge to show the effect of a half wave plate.

6H35.50

stress plastic

A set of plastic shapes are bent between crossed polariods.

6H35.50

stress plastic

A set of plastic shapes are bent between crossed Polaroids.

6H35.50

stress plastic

A commercial squeeze device and little plastic shapes are used between crossed Polaroids.

6H35.50

stress plastic

Plastic shapes on the overhead between crossed Polaroids

6H35.50

stress plastic

Various shapes of plastic fit in a squeezer between crossed Polaroids in a lantern projector.

6H35.50

stress plastic

Plastic is stressed between crossed Polaroids ALSO - Stroke a strip of glass longitudinally between crossed Polaroids and standing waves are apparent.

6H35.50

photoelastic stress figures

Stress a plastic bar between crossed Polaroids

6H35.51

crystal structure of ice

A thin slab of ice is placed between crossed Polaroids

6H35.51

quartz wedge

Interference colors are shown with a quartz wedge in red, green and white light polarized light.

6H35.52

color with mica

Rotate a mica sheet between crossed Polaroids

6H35.52

quartz wedge

A setup to show the spectral analysis of the colors of a quartz wedge.

6H35.53

sign on crystals

A setup using a quartz wedge or sensitive plate to determine the sign of crystals.

6H35.53

butterfly

Mica, cellophane, etc. are placed between crossed Polaroids

6H35.54

various crystal thicknesses

Various crystals are placed between crossed Polaroids including etchings.

6H35.55

cellophane between polaroids, etc

A nice short explanation of interference colors and a kitchen table variation where the polarizer and analyzer are not obvious.

6H35.55

cellophane between polaroids

A doubly refraction material between fixed and rotatable Polaroid sheets demonstrates color change with Polaroid rotation.

6H35.55

optical activity in cellophane tape

Interesting designs show up when plates with layered cellophane are placed between crossed Polaroids

6H35.56

polarized lion

The second polarizer is reflected light from a horizontal plate of glass.

6H35.57

polage

Optically active art work - metamorphosis of a cocoon into a butterfly as one Polaroid rotates.

6H35.60

Kerr effect with optical ceramics

Replace the nitrobenzene in the Kerr cell with an optical ceramic. An interesting welding goggles application is discussed.

6H35.61

Kerr effect - electrostatic shutter

Halowax oil is used between the plates of a capacitor set between crossed Polaroids Charge the capacitor with an electrostatic machine and the transmitted light will vary.

6H35.62

nematic liquid crystals

Directions for making cells with thin layers of the liquid crystal MBBA and various optics experiments with the material.

6H35.65

LCD ellement between polaroids

6H35.80

flow birefringence

A colloidal solution demonstrates birefringence accompanying flow. Preparation instructions.

6H50. Polarization by Scattering

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

6H50.10

sunset with polarizers

Use a sheet of Polaroid to check the polarization of scattering from a beam of light passing through a tank of water with scattering particles.

6H50.10

polarization in the sunset demo

Rotate a Polaroid in the incoming beam or at the top and side of the tank in the sunset demonstration.

6H50.10

polarization from a scattering tank

A mirror at 45 degrees mounted above the scattering tank reflects light scattered up onto the same Polaroid analyzer as the light scattered to the side.

6H50.10

the Tyndall experiment

Shine light in one side of a box with a scattering solution and look at the scattered light out in a perpendicular direction.

6H50.10

sunset with polarizers

Rotate a Polaroid in the incident beam of the sunset experiment with a mirror oriented at 45 degrees above the tank.

6H50.10

polarization by scattering

Add milk to water and show polarization of light scattered from a beam.

6H50.11

scattered laser light

Rotate a polarized laser about its own axis as it is scattered from a solution.

6H50.20

polarized scattering in a beaker

A beam of light is directed down into a beaker of water containing scattering centers. Rotate a sheet of Polaroid in front of the beaker or in the beam before it enters the water.

6H50.21

scattering tube

Direct polarized or unpolarized light up a vertical tube filled with a solution containing scattering centers.

6H50.30

depolarization by diffuse reflection

Reflect a beam of polarized light off a chalk surface through a Polaroid analyzer.

6H50.90

Haidinger's brush

Train yourself to detect polarized light with the naked eye. Most people can.

Demonstrations

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