Table of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics (4D): Kinetic Theory

Thermodynamics (4F): Entropy and the Second Law

Lecture Demonstrations

Gas Law

Grayed Demos are either not available or haven't been built yet.

PIRA classification 4E

4E10. Constant Pressure

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4E10.00

Constant Pressure

4E10.10

hot air thermometer

4E10.10

hot air thermometer

A large round flask is hooked to a manometer.

4E10.11

thermal expansion of air

4E10.11

Galileo's thermometer

An inverted flask with a long slender stem is set in water. As the air in the flask cools, the water in the tube rises.

4E10.11

thermal expansion of air

Hold the inverted flask of Galileo's thermometer with the hands to heat the entrained air and force the water in the tube down.

4E10.12

capillary tube thermometer

A capillary tube with a bead on mercury is sealed at one end.

4E10.12

horizontal thermometer

An air filled flask fitted with a long slender tube is held horizontally and a small globule of mercury moves in the tube as the air in the flask changes temperature.

4E10.13

gas thermometer

A gas thermometer operated at reduced pressure.

4E10.14

air thermometer

Just an unclear picture - might be a balloon on a flask.

4E10.15

change of volume with change of temp

A flask with a balloon fitted on the neck is heated with hot water and immersed in dry ice/alcohol.

4E10.15

balloon on a flask

A balloon on the neck of a large flask changes volume when the flask is placed into hot water or dry ice/alcohol.

4E10.16

expansion of gasses

Two identical constant pressure gas thermometers are filled with different gasses and immersed in a water bath to show the same volume increase.

4E10.16

expansion of gasses

Two bulbs connected by a "U" tube manometer are filled with different gasses and heated the same amount by immersing in a water bath to show pressure increase is the same on both sides.

4E10.20

balloons in liquid nitrogen

Pour liquid nitrogen over an air filled balloon until it collapses and then let it warm up again.

4E10.20

balloon in liquid nitrogen

Pour liquid nitrogen over an air filled balloon and then let it warm up again.

4E10.21

balloon in liquid nitrogen

A balloon partially inflated on the end of a glass rod is immersed in liquid nitrogen.

4E10.22

balloons in liquid nitrogen

Cool balloons filled with Carbon dioxide, argon, helium, pass them around the class.

4E10.30

air pressure at low temperature

Immerse the bulb of a small thermoscope in liquid air.

4E20. Constant Temperature

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4E20.00

Constant Temperature

4E20.10

square inch syringe

4E20.10

Boyle's law syringe

A glass syringe is mounted vertically with a weight holder attached to the plunger.

4E20.10

gas law with hypodermic syringe

A hypodermic syringe mounted vertically shows PV relations.

4E20.11

Boyle's law

Stack weights on a piston and read the volume off a scale. Picture.

4E20.12

square inch syringe

4E20.15

syringe and pressure gauge

4E20.15

pressure vs. volume

A pressure gauge is mounted on a glass syringe.

4E20.20

Boyle's law apparatus

4E20.20

Boyle's law apparatus

A mercury barometer attached with a heavy walled tube to an adjustable glass tube.

4E20.20

Boyle's law apparatus

A flexible tube of mercury is used to apply pressure to a chamber of air. From Am.Jour.Sci. 32,329,1911.

4E20.21

Boyle's law

A large Boyle's law apparatus. Diagram and construction hints.

4E20.22

Boyle's law apparatus

A curved tube with air trapped in the shorter closed end by mercury is tipped to change the pressure from the mercury column.

4E20.25

Boyle's law apparatus

A projection Boyle's law apparatus is shown. Includes a projection pressure meter.

4E20.26

Boyle's law apparatus

A projection Boyle's law apparatus using a mercury plug in a capillary as an indicator.

4E20.30

Boyle's law with tap pressure

4E20.30

Boyle's law with tap pressure

Eliminate mercury with this tap water pressure apparatus.

4E20.31

Boyle's law

"Lab-gas" units are a convenient source of low-pressure gas for Boyle's law demonstrations.

4E20.40

balloon in a vacuum

4E20.40

balloon in a vacuum

Place a partially filled balloon in a bell jar and evacuate. Also try a fresh marshmallow.

4E20.50

Boyle's law - air track model

An air track cart represents a one-molecule gas. The frequency of the collisions with the ends increases if the track is made shorter.

4E30. Constant Volume

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4E30.00

Constant Volume

4E30.10

constant volume bulb

Immersed a bulb with an absolute pressure gauge in boiling water, ice water, and liquid nitrogen.

4E30.10

constant volume bulb

A bulb with an absolute pressure gauge is immersed in boiling water, ice water, and liquid nitrogen.

4E30.10

constant volume thermometer

Immerse a tank bulb with an attached pressure gauge in various temperature water baths.

4E30.10

constant volume bulb - He

A Bourdon pressure gauge is attached to a toilet-tank bulb filled with helium and immersed in boiling water, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen.

4E30.10

pressure vs. temperature

A constant volume sphere with a pressure gauge is shown at room temperature and immersed in ice water and boiling water baths.

4E30.11

gas thermometer

A bulb is connected to a mercury manometer.

4E30.12

constant volume bulb

Capillary tubes containing mercury pistons are attached to toilet-tank bulbs filled with different gasses.

4E30.20

constant volume thermometer

4E30.20

constant volume thermometer

A bulb is connected to a mercury manometer that can be raised or lowered to keep the mercury on the bulb side at the same place.

4E30.21

constant volume air thermometer

Looks like the Boyle's law apparatus except the enclosed end has a small flask suitable for immersing in a cold water bath. Adjustments are used to keep the volume constant.

4E30.30

light bulb pressure

Heat a light bulb locally and the glass is pushed in, then heat it while on and the glass is pushed out.

4E30.40

heat generated by spark

The increased pressure of air in an enclosed container heated by sparking is measured with a manometer.

Demonstrations

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