Quantum Effects

PIRA classification 7A

Grayed Demos are either not available or haven't been built yet.

7A10. Photoelectric Effect

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7A10.10

photoelectric effect in zinc

Use UV light to discharge a clean zinc plate mounted on an electroscope.

7A10.10

discharging zinc plate

Discharge a clean zinc plate mounted on an electroscope with UV light.

7A10.10

photoelectric effect

Discharge a zinc plate on an electroscope with UV light.

7A10.10

discharging zinc plate

A clean zinc plate mounted on a charged electroscope discharges an electroscope when the light source is not covered with glass.

7A10.10

surface photoelectric effect

UV light shines on a zinc plate on an electroscope. More.

7A10.10

the photoelectric effect

Discharge a zinc plate on an electroscope.

7A10.10

photoelectric effect in zinc

Zinc plate on an electroscope, charged negative, glass UV barrier.

7A10.12

photoelectric charging

Same as AJP 33(9),746.

7A10.12

photoelectric charging

Additions to the AJP 33,746 (1965) article.

7A10.12

photoelectric charging

Hold a positively charged object next to the zinc plate on an uncharged electroscope while illuminating it with an UV light. The electroscope will charge positively.

7A10.15

discovery of photoelectric effect

A spark passes between two zinc electrodes attached to a 15 KV transformer when UV light is present.

7A10.17

photoelectric effect with geiger ctr

Conversion of photons to electrons in lead foil.

7A10.20

photoelectric effect with prism

Project different parts of the spectra onto a zinc plate on a charged electroscope.

7A10.23

photoelectric effect circuit

A photoelectric effect apparatus based on the AD 515 electrometer op amp allows relatively inexpensive and easy direct measurement of the photopotential between anode and photocathode.

7A10.24

photoelectric effect circuits

Very cheap current detector substitutes.

7A10.26

photoelectric effect circuit

Single transistor circuit for use with RCA 929 phototube.

7A10.26

photoelectric effect circuit

An op-amp circuit for a 1P39 or similar phototube.

7A10.27

photoelectric effect circuit

A helpful article on stopping potential with all the basic vital information, e.g., the wavelengths of the spectral lines of mercury, and featuring a transistorized current amplifier.

7A10.28

photoelectric effect circuit

Circuit diagram for an amplifier for use with the 1P39 tube.

7A10.30

stopping potential

Measure the stopping potential of different colored light with a 1P39 phototube. Use interference filters at 400, 450, 500, 550, and 600 nm.

7A10.30

stopping potential

Equipment and circuit diagrams for stopping potential demonstration.

7A10.30

stopping potential

Simple apparatus based on the 929 phototube. Several demonstrations and discussion sections for studying the photoelectric effect and measuring Planck's constant.

7A10.30

stopping potential

Measure the stopping potential of the line of the mercury spectrum with a phototube.

7A10.30

stopping potential

A mercury arc lamp is used with filters giving passbands of one spectral line onto the cathode of a 1P39 phototube.

7A10.30

stopping potential

The potential in the collector is changed while measuring the current under different colored light.

7A10.31

stopping potential error

A widespread error in elementary texts on the stopping potential.

7A10.35

photoelectric threshold

Rotate the spectrum across a zinc plate until the current rises sharply.

7A10.35

photoelectric threshold

The photoelectric threshold demonstrator consists of a projected spectrum, a sample holder, and a translucent screen.

7A10.35

phototube and electrometer

A 929 phototube is connected to a electrometer and the voltage observed while sweeping the tube across a projected spectrum.

7A10.35

photoelectric threshold

Measure the current from a photocell exposed to different colored light.

7A10.36

photoconductivity

A photocell is passed through the spectrum while resistance is measured.

7A10.37

photoelectric charging of a capacito

A double pole, double throw switch connects a vacuum phototube to a capacitor, then a galvanometer while different lamps shine on the phototube.

7A10.38

alkali metal photocell

A simple circuit for showing photoelectric current.

7A10.40

barrier-layer cells

Measure the current from a cell of the type used in foot candle meters.

7A10.40

sun batteries

This must be a photocell connected to an ammeter.

7A10.40

solar cells

Shine a bright light on selenium solar cells and run a small motor.

7A10.41

ring a bell

Shine a light on a photoelectric cell to ring a bell.

7A10.42

photo-voltaic switch

Turn on a light using a light beam and photo-voltaic cell.

7A10.43

photo detector

Modulate a light and use a photo detector and amplifier with a speaker.

7A10.50

photo conduction vs. thermopile

7A10.50

photoconduction vs. thermopile

A CdS photocell and thermopile. are moved across a projected spectrum and the outputs compared for frequency response.

7A10.60

carrier recombination and lifetime

A photoconductor is strobed and the output observed on an oscilloscope.

7A10.71

sodium photoelectric cell

On making a sodium photoelectric cell.

7A10.72

commercial vacuum photocells

Discussion of low cost ceasium-on-oxidized-silver photocells.

7A10.73

commercial gas-filled photocells

The characteristics of argon filled photocells.

7A10.74

selenium photoconductor

Directions for making a selenium photoconductor.

7A10.76

making photoconductors

Directions for preparing cadmium sulfide surfaces.

7A10.99

photochemical reaction

A mixture of hydrogen and chlorine is set off by a light flash.

= 7A15. Millikan Oil Drop =

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7A20.10

Compton effect on MCA

Same as AJP 52(2)183.

7A20.10

simple Compton effect

Use a multichannel analyzer to observe the normal Compton edge while the source and detector are isolated. Bring aluminum and lead blocks nearby and observe the backscattered peaks.

7A20.15

Compton scattering with turntable

A shielded source faces a scatterer with a scintillator rotating around at various angles. Pictures.

7A20.20

x-ray Compton scattering

An x-ray beam strikes an aluminum plate at 45 degrees and the beam is scattered into an ionization chamber while a copper plate is inserted into the beam before and after scattering.

7A50. Wave Mechanics

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7A15.10

Millikan oil drop experiment

The small Millikan chamber and telescope.

7A15.10

Millikan oil drop

The real experiment and an animated sequence explaining the apparatus.

7A15.11

Millikan oil drop illuminator

A microscope lamp makes an excellent illuminator for the oil drop experiment.

7A15.11

Millikan - laser illumination

Replace the light in the Welch apparatus with a laser.

7A15.12

Pasco apparatus - evaluation

Problems with the Pasco apparatus.

7A15.12

Millikan oil drop suggestions

Three suggestions for the Pasco apparatus.

7A15.13

Millikan oil drop - change charge

Put a quartz lamp between the plates.

7A15.13

Millikan oil drop charge change

The spark from a small tesla coil is used to change the charge on the drops.

7A15.14

drop discriminator and ionizer

Modification to introduce drops into the apparatus.

7A15.20

Millikan oil drop model

7A15.20

Millikan oil drop with soap bubble

Blow a soap bubble on a sleeve attached to an electrostatic generator.

7A15.21

Millikan oil drop model - glass bead

Tiny glass balls are levitated in this model of Millikan's experiment.

7A15.25

model of Millikan oil drop experimen

Place a balloon between two large metal plates attached to a Wimshurst.

7A15.25

Millikan oil drop large version

A small light foam plastic ball is the drop between parallel plates in this scaled up oil drop demonstration.

7A15.25

model oil-drop experiment

Balance a ping pong ball between two charged plates.

7A15.40

air drop in a field

Apparent violation of Earnshaw's theorem when a float moves towards a field minimum.

7A55. Wave Particle Duality

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7A50.10

frustrated total internal reflection

A review of the history and theory. Pellin-Broca prisms eliminate reflection losses when measurements are taken.

7A50.10

frustrated total internal reflection

Squeeze two right angle prisms together with a "c" clamp while directing a beam of light at the interface.

7A50.10

optical barrier penetration

A Laboratory setup of optical barrier penetration.

7A50.10

barrier penetration

Frustrated total internal reflection with light and glass prisms demonstrates barrier penetration.

7A50.11

almost total reflection

Use a plano-convex lens between the prisms and laser beam illumination.

7A50.12

frustrated total internal reflection

A good note on frustrated total internal reflection and other accompanying physics.

7A50.15

tunnel effect

Rocksalt prisms with gaps of 5 microns and 15 microns show transmission of IR to a thermopile. in one case only.

7A50.20

microwave barrier penetration

Two right angle paraffin prisms are used with 3 cm microwaves to demonstrate barrier penetration.

7A50.20

optical and microwave penetration

Two detectors are used in both optical and microwave barrier penetration to quantitatively show the reflected and transmitted beams.

7A50.20

frustrated total internal reflection

Demonstrate frustrated total internal reflection using microwaves and two right angle paraffin prisms. Pictures, Reference: AJP 31(10),808.

7A50.20

microwave barrier penetration

Microwaves are totally reflected off a plastic prism until another is touching the first.

7A50.21

microwave tunnel effect

A waveguide transmission line with three dielectric regions driven at 5 GHz.

7A50.21

microwave tunnel effect

A microwave "potential barrier" of three sections of waveguide - with dielectric, air and again dielectric.

7A50.30

vibrating soap film

Soap films are vibrated at audio frequencies to produce standing waves which are projected on a screen.

7A50.35

circular Rubens tube

A 4' diameter circular Rubens flame tube demonstrates circular standing waves. Picture.

7A50.40

vibrating circular wire

Excite a circular wire at audio frequencies by an electromagnet drive to produce standing waves.

7A50.40

vibrating circular wire

Eigenfrequences of a 2.2" dia. wire circle are obtained by exciting with a 650 ohm relay coil.

7A50.40

vibrating circular wire

A circular wire is excited at audio frequencies by an electromagnet drive to produce standing waves. Diagram, Pictures, Reference: AJP 33(10),xiv.

7A50.50

uncertainty principle with E&M

Interpret the inverse relation between the pulse length of a signal on the oscilloscope and the spectral-energy density on a spectrum analyzer as a demonstration of the uncertainty principle.

7A50.50

complementarity rule

Circuit for a generator that produces 1,2,4,8, or 16 pulses in a packet. Decrease in bandwidth for longer packets is evident when the Fourier power spectrum is viewed.

7A50.52

electric analog circuit

A three dimensional electrical network of inductors and capacitors models energy density in three dimensions.

7A50.60

photon counter - correlator

A low cost time correlator-photon counter enables demonstrations of intensity correlation function, photon-bunching, coherence time, and related topics.

7A50.80

Kronig-Penny model analog computer

Diagram for an analog computer to simulate the Kronig-Penny model wave functions.

7A50.90

Mermin's Bell theorem boxes

A logic circuit that makes Mermin's gedanken experiment a feasible and instructive lecture demonstration.

7A50.90

noncommuting operators

Use the Abbe theory of image formation in the microscope is used to demonstrate noncommutativity.

7A60. X-ray and Electron Diffraction

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7A60.10

electron diffraction

Rings or spots are shown with the old Welch electron diffraction tube.

7A60.10

electron diffraction

Rings or spots are shown with the old Welch electron diffraction tube.

7A60.10

electron diffraction

The Meiners/Welch electron diffraction tube. Pictures, Diagram, Reference: AJP,30, ,549.

7A60.10

electron diffraction

The Welch electron diffraction apparatus.

7A60.10

electron diffraction

Rings are obtained from a commercial tube with a graphite target.

7A60.11

electron diffraction - mult. slits

A method for making 3 micron wide slits. A schematic for the electron diffraction apparatus is given.

7A60.12

tv tube electron diffraction

With the cooperation of a TV tube manufacturer, a gold foil was placed in a black and white TV tube.

7A60.12

tv tube electron diffraction

Work with a local TV tube rebuilder to make an electron diffraction tube from an old TV

7A60.15

Miller indices

A solid model of the cuprite crystal habit with the various Miller indices labels on the faces.

7A60.20

diffraction model

7A60.20

X-ray and electron diffraction model

Generate a ring pattern by rotating fine mesh wire gauze in a point source of light.

7A60.21

model Laue diffraction pattern

Direct a beam of light off a wood cylinder with radial glass vanes to a screen.

7A60.22

model Laue diffraction pattern

Reflect a beam of light off a single polished rod onto a screen to illustrate Laue diffraction.

7A60.24

optical analog of x-ray diffraction

Compare Fraunhofer diffraction patterns from masks containing repeating arrays of holes with x-ray diagrams.

7A60.26

spherical projection model

Colored dots on the surface of a Lucite sphere represent the projection of the spots as if a single crystal was irritated at the center of spherical film.

7A60.27

blocking patterns in crystal latices

Take a model of a crystal, replace an atom with a point source such as a flashlight battery, project the shadow pattern on a screen.

7A60.28

bent crystal spectrometer model

A model of the Caushois bent crystal spectrometer using a beam of light and a stack of microscope slides.

7A60.30

electron "Poisson spot"

Fresnel zones and the "Poisson spot" with electrons using an electron microscope with a good deal of historical development.

7A60.40

field emission electron microscope

Use a simplified high voltage generator with the Leybold field emission electron microscope.

7A60.45

simple field emission electron micro

A coin used as an electrode in a highly evacuated tube forms an image on a fluorescent screen when voltage is high enough.

7A60.50

Bragg Diffraction - microwave

Apparatus Drawings Project No. 6: Three cm microwaves and a ball bearing array demonstrate crystal diffraction. Klystron source.

7A60.50

microwave crystal diffraction model

Microwave diffraction is observed from a crystal model made of steel bearings mounted in a styrofoam cube.

7A60.50

microwave Bragg diffraction

Lattices of steel ball bearings embedded in styrofoam form crystal models for microwave diffraction.

7A60.51

improved Welch-Bragg mount

A parallelogram device that sweeps both arms through equal angles and has a direct reading of the sine of the angle.

7A60.51

microwave crystal diffraction models

Use 1/2" brads in place of ball bearings to make the analog of polarized particles.

7A60.51

microwave crystal models

Make models of crystals for microwave diffraction by inserting a No. 7 lead shot in styrofoam balls and then making models of the crystal structures.

7A60.60

ripple tank - Bragg diffraction

Floating arrays of pith balls model atoms for ripple tank Bragg diffraction. Also ripple tank construction techniques. Diagrams.

7A60.61

ripple tank Bragg reflection

An array of rods is used to demonstrate Bragg reflection. Picture.

7A60.90

X-ray diffraction

Use a beam, rock salt, and X-ray photographic paper to show diffraction.

7A60.91

x-ray diffraction

X-ray diffraction of a rock salt crystal mounted on a goniometer with GM tube detector.

7A60.92

x-ray diffraction model

If you need to demonstrate the reciprocal lattice concept in relation to single-crystal x-ray diffraction patterns, this is for you.

7A60.95

sample x-ray tube

Show a large x-ray tube.

7A70. Condensed Matter

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7A70.10

F-center diffusion

Place a small KCl crystal in a tube furnace and project the intense blue color that is injected and diffuses through the crystal when 300 V is applied.

7A70.15

Josephson phenomena analog

A Pendulum analog of a small-area Josephson junction between two superconductors is coupled to the analogs of other circuit elements to demonstrate a variety of time dependent phenomena observed in actual devices.

7A70.20

Josephson effect simple demo

7A70.20

flux quantization in superconductors

A induim film with lots of holes is used with a standard magnetometer.

7A70.30

F-center diffusion

7A70.30

Josephson junction analog

Abstract from the 1981 apparatus competition describing an electronic circuit for demonstrating Josephson junction behavior.

7A70.40

Josephson effect simple demo

Niobium wire is twisted together, varnished and built into a simple stainless tube that can be inserted into a helium dewar. I-V curves are observed on an oscilloscope.

Demonstrations

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fw: QuantumEffects (last edited 2013-07-22 16:15:33 by srnarf)