Nuclear Physics

PIRA classification 7D

Grayed Demos are either not available or haven't been built yet.

7D10. Radioactivity

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7D10.09

radiation saftey

Introduction to the handbook "Radiation Protection in Teaching Institutions" with brief presentation of urgently needed information.

7D10.10

gieger counter & samples

Listen to a Geiger counter when radioactive samples are tested.

7D10.10

gieger counter & samples

7D10.11

sources of radioactivity

Obtain radioactive ore or old radon seeds.

7D10.12

radioactive plate

A red "fiesta" plate is checked for radioactivity.

7D10.15

coin flip half life

7D10.20

half life with isotope generator

7D10.20

half life with isotope generator

Three isotope generators that can be "milked".

7D10.20

half life

The half life of a barium 137 sample recorded on a computer based analyzer.

7D10.21

isotope generator

The commercial Cs/Ba generator.

7D10.21

isotope generator

On the amount of the longer-lived Sn coming through the generator.

7D10.21

reply to comment

You idiots.

7D10.25

radon in the air

7D10.25

radon, thoron in the air

Pump air through a filter and measure the decay to get two half lives of 32 min and 10 hr.

7D10.25

radon in the air half life

Pump air through a filter and place the filter under a counter attached to a strip chart recorder. Reference: AJP 28(11),743.

7D10.27

emanation electroscope

Demonstrate thorium half life by observing the decay of an emanation electroscope.

7D10.27

emanation electroscope

The Welch emanation electroscope is used to demonstrate thorium half life. Reference: AJP 29(11),789.

7D10.30

contamination by neutron source

7D10.30

contamination by neutron source

A coin is placed with a neutron source on a paraffin block for a minute and then tested for radioactivity.

7D10.31

buildup and decay

Aluminum foil on the rim of a wheel rotates between a neutron source and beta detector.

7D10.33

half life of silver

Measure the half life of silver activated by a neutron source.

7D10.33

half life of silver

Use a neutron source and silver dollar.

7D10.36

radoiactive iodine source

Irradiate the sodium iodide crystal that is in the scintillation spectrometer.

7D10.40

secular equilibrium

7D10.40

secular and transient equilibrium

Water flow models of the half life of the daughter being much less and less than the parent.

7D10.40

radioactive decay model

Cylindrical vessels placed above each other show a hydraulic model of radioactive decay.

7D10.41

secular equilibruim in series

A model of a series of disintegrations with a series of capillary tubes emptying into each other.

7D10.41

simultaneous decay model

Water from two capillaries starting with water at different heights is collected and the results plotted.

7D10.42

water flow model of decay

Water drips from a capillary for equal time intervals into a series of test tubes. In another setup, the water drips through wire meshes to a counter.

7D10.45

electrical analog of decay

7D10.47

electric analog of decay

An electrical circuit allows three consecutive first-order rate reactions.

7D10.47

atomic radiative decay analog

The response of an electrical circuit is compared to the decay characteristics of coupled three level atomic systems.

7D10.48

analog computer decay model

Circuit for an analog computer does three stage nuclear chain decay.

7D10.50

dice on the overhead

7D10.50

dice on the overhead

7D10.50

dice on the overhead

Drill a face centered hole through each of twenty dice and roll he bunch on an overhead projector, removing the ones that light shows through.

7D10.55

coin toss half life

7D10.60

range and absorption

7D10.60

range and absorption

Different barriers are placed between a gamma source and a detector.

7D10.60

nuclear shielding

Cardboard, aluminum, and lead sheets shield a detector.

7D10.61

beta and gamma ray absorption

A set of absorbers for showing alpha, beta, and gamma absorption.

7D10.65

exponential absorption model

A series of neutral density filters are added to a light and photocell arrangement to model absorption.

7D10.70

range of alpha particles

Bring an alpha source near a grid and plate connected to an electroscope.

7D10.75

scattering of alpha particles

A thin metal foil placed between an alpha source and a detector shows the intensity of scattering dependent on angle.

7D10.80

cosmic rays

7D10.80

cosmic rays

Scintillator paddles are placed on each side of a person and simultaneous events indicate cosmic ray muons passing through the body.

7D20. Nuclear Reactions

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7D20.00

Nuclear Reactions

7D20.10

mousetraps

7D20.10

mousetraps

56 mousetraps in a cage are each set with two corks.

7D20.10

mousetrap chain reaction

A large number of mousetraps set with two corks each in a large cage.

7D20.10

mousetrap chain reaction

Ping pong balls on mousetraps.

7D20.11

better mousetrap

An electronic mousetrap array that can be used as a single event "bomb" or a continuous self-sustaining nuclear reaction.

7D20.11

mousetrap improvments

Attach groups of six mousetraps to a hardwood block. The spacing between the blocks can be varied to produce subcritical, critical, or supercritical assemblies. Place two wood blocks on each trap.

7D20.12

nuclear-disintegration model

A ball rolls down an incline and hits a group of balls in a small potential well.

7D20.15

match chain reactions

7D20.15

match chain reactions

7D20.15

match chain reaction

Matches are spaced differently in two perpendicular rows. Light the match at the junction and the entire row with the smaller spacing ignites.

7D20.20

dominoes chain reaction

7D20.20

dominoes chain reaction

Knock down a row of dominoes of ever increasing size.

7D20.20

domino "chain reaction"

A whisp of cotton knocks over a small domino starting a chain reaction in which each succeeding domino is 1 1/2 times larger in all dimensions.

7D20.30

uranium model

A sphere contains internal mechanisms to eject two balls (electrons) after a ball is dropped in (thermal neutron.) Pictures, Construction details in appendix, p. 1378.

7D20.31

U235 fission model

A wooden sphere flies apart and ejects two wood balls and an iron sphere when an iron sphere is dropped in. Pictures, Construction details in appendix, p. 1380.

7D20.35

fission model - liquid drop

Probe a motor oil drop in alcohol/water to induce "fission".

7D20.40

moderation of fast neutrons

The moderation of fast neutrons in paraffin yields both fast and thermal neutrons shown by shielding the boron counter with a Cd sheet and detecting thermal neutrons from a second paraffin block.

7D20.41

water model xenon poisoning reactor

A water flow model of the behavior of a thermal neutron reactor with xenon poisoning.

7D20.60

resonance absorption of gamma rays

Model of resonance absorption of gamma rays consists of an electromagnetically driven tuning fork and audio oscillator.

7D20.90

nuclear explosion effects

An introductory level summary of the physics of a nuclear bomb explosion and the effects on humans.

7D30. Particle Detectors

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7D30.05

Ludlum Detectors

7D30.05

Ludlum Detectors

Ludlum hand held alpha, beta, and gamma detectors are used with a variety of sources.

7D30.05

survey meters

Alpha, beta, and gamma survey meter and slow neutron monitor.

7D30.06

GM tube to Apple circuit

A simple complete circuit for biasing a GM tube, pulse shaping, and interfacing to an Apple computer.

7D30.08

Poisson destribution of counts

An electronic circuit provides output pulses when the time interval between pulses is of the preset value. Show the difference between inputs from a scintillation detector and Geiger counter.

7D30.10

nixie Geiger counter

7D30.10

nixie geiger counter

A Geiger tube in a lead brick is used with a nixie tube counter.

7D30.10

geiger counter

A Geiger tube in a lead block is attached to a nixie tube counter.

7D30.11

Geiger-Muller tube

Make a simple tube with a wire down the middle at low pressure. Includes circuits for counters.

7D30.12

Geiger point counter

A Geiger point counter made with an ordinary steel phonograph needle.

7D30.13

water-jet counter

A fine water jet impinging on a rubber diaphragm is controlled by a metal electrode.

7D30.14

ionizaton avalanche model

Rows of balls held on an inclined plank at intervals by wires from an avalanche starting with one ball as more balls are knocked out in each interval.

7D30.15

thermal neutron detector

7D30.15

thermal neutron detector

A UO2 detector for fission produced thermal neutrons.

7D30.16

neutron howitzer

A 55 gal drum filled with paraffin.

7D30.16

neutron howitzer

A 2 curie neutron source is used with a BF3 detector.

7D30.20

alpha detector

7D30.20

alpha detector

The Cenco alpha detector with a high voltage bias between a plate and a wire grid.

7D30.20

Cenco alpha detector review

Long review of the Cenco alpha counter originally developed by Harold Waage.

7D30.20

grid alpha detector

A grid over a plate is biased just below sparking and an alpha source is brought near. Cenco photo.

7D30.21

simple alpha detector

Directions on making a simple homemade single wire spark counter.

7D30.22

Si photodiode alpha detector

Use a Si photodiode as a alpha detector. A charge sensitive preamp design is included.

7D30.25

spark chamber

7D30.25

spark chambers

Plans for two types of spark chambers: multiplate and "curtain discharge".

7D30.25

spark chamber

Construction details, driver and power supply circuits for a small spark chamber.

7D30.25

spark chamber

A small spark chamber is shown. Pictures, Construction details in appendix, p.1390, Reference: AJP 31(8),571.

7D30.28

ionization chamber

A simple parallel plate ionization chamber built in an aluminum roasting chamber with a sensitive volume of 75 cubic inches.

7D30.30

magnetic deflection of beta rays

A magnet is used to bend electrons from a beta source past a shield to a detector.

7D30.31

beta spectrometer

A qualitative beta spectrometer for use as a lecture demonstration. Pictures, Diagrams, Construction details in appendix, p. 1370.

7D30.32

demonstration beta spectrometer

A small beta spectrometer with a 4" face.

7D30.40

film detection

Several samples are placed on a large sheet of film overnight and the film is developed the next day showing which are radioactive.

7D30.41

film detection

On using Polaroid land sheet film packets as a detector for radiation experiments and demonstrations.

7D30.50

Wilson cloud chamber

7D30.50

Wilson cloud chamber

Squeeze the rubber bulb of the Wilson cloud chamber and watch tracks from an alpha source.

7D30.50

Wilson cloud chamber

The Knipp type chamber with a rubber bulb and alpha source.

7D30.51

Wilson cloud chamber

An expansion cloud chamber mounted in a lantern projector.

7D30.55

cycling Wilson cloud chamber

An automatically cycling Wilson cloud chamber. Pictures, Construction details in appendix, p.1382, Reference: AJP 18(3),149.

7D30.60

diffusion cloud chambers

Dry ice diffusion cloud chambers.

7D30.60

diffusion cloud chamber

7D30.60

cloud chamber accessories

Drawings of a lamp housing and chamber housing.

7D30.60

small cloud chamber

A 10x10x10 cm plexiglass cube cloud chamber suitable for TV projection.

7D30.60

small cloud chamber

A transparent plastic refrigerator jar on a cake of dry ice serves as a small continuous cloud chamber.

7D30.60

simple diffusion cloud chamber

Using cheap parts to make a dry ice cloud chamber.

7D30.60

diffusion cloud chamber

A large chamber supersaturated with alcohol vapor is cooled with an alcohol/dry ice bath at the bottom.

7D30.60

large cloud chamber

A large alcohol/dry ice cloud chamber is shown. Pictures.

7D30.60

continuous cloud chamber

Alcohol in a jar placed on dry ice makes a cheap cloud chamber.

7D30.60

cloud chambers

Dry ice diffusion cloud chambers.

7D30.62

cloud chamber

A fancier dry ice and alcohol cloud chamber.

7D30.63

LN2 cooled diffusion cloud chamber

The design of a LN2 cooled diffusion cloud chamber with increased sensitivity and quick startup.

7D30.64

cloud chamber - vacuum jacket

Design for a vacuum jacket that increases the sensitive area of the chamber.

7D30.65

glycol cloud chamber

A glycol cloud chamber is heated at the top and cooled with running water at the bottom.

7D30.68

photographing tracks

Black dye (Nigrosin) in methanol provides a dark nonreflective background, other hints.

7D30.69

cloud chamber principles

Place a spark gap in the steam coming from a teakettle.

7D30.70

model cyclotron

A conical pendulum is accelerated by periodic electrical forces four times per revolution to model the motion of a charged particle in an isochronous cyclotron with four 90 degree Dees.

7D30.70

model cyclotron

A Ball is gravitationally accelerated along a spiral grove in an apparatus designed to demonstrate the principles of acceleration and phase stability in a cyclotron.

7D30.70

model cyclotron

7D30.70

model cyclotron

7D30.71

linear accelerator - sand model

A Wimshurst charges a model linear accelerator that shoots sand out one end.

7D30.75

particle focusing in accelerator

Inverted pendulum model of focusing in a particle accelerator.

7D30.78

model synchrotron

A steel ball bounces on an oscillating piston with concave surface to provide focusing. At constant amplitude, the ball bounces lower when the period is decreased.

7D30.80

bubble chamber photographs

7D30.80

bubble chamber photographs

Welch. Two slide sets taken at the 20" in chamber at the Brookhaven National Laboratory.

7D30.80

bubble chamber photographs

Pictures and analysis of bubble chamber pictures.

7D30.80

bubble chamber tracks

Determination of the rest mass of a hyperon particle from bubble chamber pictures. Pictures.

7D30.90

mass spectrometer

Apparatus Drawings Project No. 7: A mass spectrometer for undergraduate lab with a resolving power of 75.

7D30.90

mass spectrometer

Apparatus Drawings Project No. 5: Small Mass Spectrometer. Construction plans for a small radius 180 degree mass spectrometer with a salt coated tungsten filament, 1K gauss, 100V, resolving power 33.

7D30.91

model linear accelerator

A ping pong ball is accelerated in a Plexiglas tube when a series of ring electrodes are charged by a Wimshurst

7D30.95

pair production and annihilation

A pair of scintillation counters face each other across an electron beam interrupted by a card with the appropriate equipment to detect coincidences.

7D30.96

coincidence counters for cosmic rays

A circuit with two Geiger-Muler tubes.

7D40. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7D40.00

NMR

7D40.10

NMR gyro model

7D40.10

NMR - gyroscope model

A modified gyroscope model of NMR. Diagram, References, AJP 29(10),709.

7D40.11

NMR - gyroscope model

A gyroscope with a permanent magnet is placed on like poles of an electromagnet.

7D40.12

NMR - gyroscope model

A gyroscope model designed to show the magnetic transitions when the field and Larmor frequency are identical.

7D40.13

NMR - Maxwell top model

The top post of the Maxwell top is constrained by rubber bands attached to a frame to demonstrate the "flopping" of the magnetic moment vector which increases or decreases the precession angle.

7D40.13

Larmor precession model

A spinning gyro over an electromagnet demonstrates Larmor precession. Diagram, Picture, Construction details in appendix, p.1392.

7D40.15

magnetic resonance

A small magnet suspended driven with Helmholtz coils will oscillate at a particular frequency, but at a different frequency if a static field is applied at right angles.

7D40.16

Larmor precession

A bicycle wheel gyro used to show Larmor precession.

7D40.20

NMR - air bearing gyro model

An air bearing gyro with Alnico magnet in the ball and Helmholtz coils.

7D40.20

air gyro in Helmholtz coils

NMR principles are demonstrated with an air gyro mounted between Helmholtz coils. Diagrams, Reference: AJP 33(4),322.

7D40.22

Magnetic top in Helmholtz coils

An air driven magnetic top mounted between Helmholtz coils demonstrates spinning dipole interaction with external fields. Pictures, Construction details in appendix, p. 1393.

7D40.30

spin echo spectrometer

7D40.30

spin echo spectrometer

Design and construction of a simple pulsed NMR spectrometer, used first in a high school physics class.

7D40.30

spin echo instrument

Four demonstrations with a simplified spin echo instrument.

7D40.31

NMR "grid dip" method with cobalt

A bottle of powdered cobalt, a grid current meter, and a tuned oscillator show a small dip in grid current at resonance.

7D40.40

NMR with fixed field

Block diagram of a method to demonstrate NMR in a fixed field by sweeping and modulating the frequency.

7D40.40

magnetic resonance demonstration

A description of a simple and inexpensive demonstration model of pulsed magnetic resonance effects.

7D40.40

simple NMR spectrometer

Circuits for a simple NMR spectrometer.

7D50. Models of the Nucleus

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7D50.00

Models of the Nucleus

7D50.10

Rutherford scattering

7D50.10

Rutherford scattering

Balls roll down a ramp onto a potential surface to model Rutherford scattering.

7D50.10

scattering surface with analyzer

Balls roll down an incline onto a scattering surface. Eighteen pockets ring the surface.

7D50.11

Rutherford scattering on the OH

Ink dipped balls are rolled down an incline toward a clear plastic potential hill on an overhead projector stage.

7D50.12

alpha particle scattering model

A magnet pendulum is repulsed by the pole of a vertical electromagnet. Orbits can be demonstrated in the attracting case.

7D50.13

Rutherford pendulum

An electromagnet pendulum suspended from an aluminum rod swings by an electromagnet on the table.

7D50.14

Rutherford scattering on table

A dry ice puck with a vertically mounted magnet is placed on a glass plate with a second vertically oriented magnet just underneath to give an inverse square force.

7D50.15

alpha particle scattering model

A ping pong ball pendulum is suspended above a Van de Graaff generator.

7D50.16

"Welch" scattering apparatus

On using the "Welch" ball bearing scattering apparatus to model the conditions of an experiment in nuclear physics as far as possible.

7D50.19

alpha scattering

Apparatus Drawings Project No. 16: Simple Rutherford scattering using an annular ring of scattering material. The distance from the ring to the detector is varied giving scattering angles from 28 to 71 degrees.

7D50.19

Rutherford scattering

Take data for thirty minutes as a lecture demonstration.

7D50.20

Rutherford scattering animation

7D50.20

Rutherford scattering animation

An animation of alpha particle scattering.

7D50.30

Thompson model

7D50.30

Thompson model of the atom

Vertical needle magnets stuck in corks float in a pan of water surrounded by a coil on the overhead projector.

7D50.30

the Thompson model

Looks like it might be the vertical magnets in a coil apparatus. Reference: H.E.White, Modern College Physics, 5th ed., p 452.

7D50.35

Thompson vs. Rutherford model

An apparatus to randomly shoot steel balls at models of the Thompson or Rutherford atom.

7D50.40

1/r surface model of nucleus

A Lucite 1/r surface with a well and accelerating ramp for ball bearings is used to show repulsion, capture, and ejection. Picture, Construction details in appendix., p.1372.

7D50.42

short range/long range surface

Deform a rubber sheet by boiling water in a test tube and holding it against the rubber sheet so it gets sucked down, then lift the test tube to make a potential barrier.

7D50.45

electron falls into nucleus

A ball rolling in a funnel falls into the middle.

7D50.46

mass defect

7D50.46

mass defect

7D50.65

chemical heart nucleus model

The chemical heart vibrates in various modes giving a crude model of a nucleus. Recipe included.

7D50.65

mercury ameoba model of the nucleus

The mercury amoeba is used to demonstrate vibratory motion analogous to oscillations of an excited nucleus. Reference: AJP 28(6),561.

7D50.90

scattering x-rays by paraffin

A paraffin block is inserted to scatter x-rays into a Geiger counter.

Demonstrations

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