Atomic Physics

PIRA classification 7B

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7B10. Spectra

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7B10.10

line spectra and student gratings

Have students view line sources through replica gratings.

7B10.10

line and cont. spectra with gratings

Students look at a carousel of line spectra lamps and a line filament with replica gratings.

7B10.10

line spectra and student gratings

Replica gratings are passed out, sources can be connected in series with an induction coil.

7B10.10

emission spectra

Line spectra are viewed through 13,400 lines/inch gratings.

7B10.10

emission spectra

Four spectral tubes and white light through a grating.

7B10.11

discharges in gases

Rub various tubes with plastic foil to see spectacular discharges produced by the static electricity.

7B10.11

bright line spectrum

Sources for bright line spectra: high melting point metals are used as electrodes in an arc lamp, the salts of low melting point metals are burned in a flame, gases are heated in discharge tubes.

7B10.12

band emission spectra

Nitrogen, cyanogen, water vapor, and hydrogen show molecular band spectra.

7B10.15

line spectra tubes and large grating

A box with five Pluecker line spectra tubes are mounted in a box with a replica grating front.

7B10.17

prism spectrometer

Students can view emission spectra individually with a spectrometer.

7B10.20

project spectral lines

Project high intensity Na and Hg lamps through 300 or 600 lines/mm gratings.

7B10.25

spectral chart

Add abstract in Handbook.FM

7B10.30

salt electrode arcs

Pinhole project a carbon arc onto a screen, pack an electrode with a salt, project a spectrum through a prism.

7B10.40

emmision spectra - Balmer series

Measure the deviations of the Balmer series of a projected spectrum of hydrogen.

7B10.42

Balmer series spectrum tube

Apparatus Drawing Project No. 1: report on constructing and filling a reliable Balmer series tube with a useful life of greater than 1500 hours.

7B10.50

X-ray line spectra model

Pour lead shot into a pan.

7B10.60

Raman effect - simple apparatus

A simple double cell apparatus that can be inserted into a 200 mW argon laser for direct observation of the virtual image of the spectra of the scattered light.

7B11. Absorption

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7B11.10

sodium absorption/emission

A TV camera shows the Na doublet from a spectrometer in both emission and absorption.

7B11.10

emission and absorption of sodium

A grating spectrometer that resolves the sodium d lines is used to show emission by a salt flame and absorption of white light by the flame.

7B11.11

Monochromator

Design of a simple monochromator with folded optics that will resolve 1 angstrom lines.

7B11.12

sodium emission/absorption

Illuminate half a slit with a sodium flame, half with sunlight from a heliostat. Compare emission and absorption lines.

7B11.13

sodium absorption and emission

A projection system is aligned so both emission and absorption lines of sodium are visible from an arc with one electrode drilled and filled with anhydrous sodium carbonate.

7B11.15

dark line sodium spectra

White light is passed through a concrete block containing a second arc that vaporizes sodium and the spectrum produced shows the sodium d line.

7B11.15

sodium absorption lines

White light is passed through sodium flames before being dispersed by a prism.

7B11.16

sodium flame

Place a Pyrex test tube at 45 degrees with the bottom in the hottest part of the flame.

7B11.16

sodium absorption

Three methods of burning sodium in an arc and generating enough sodium vapor to show a strong absorption line.

7B11.17

flame salts

The colors of different flame salts are observed.

7B11.19

imitation line spectra

While projecting a slide of the continuous spectrum, insert another plate with lines drawn on representing the absorption spectrum of a gas.

7B11.20

spectral absorption by sodium

7B11.20

sodium absorption cloud

A cloud of black smoke seems to form when vapor from flame heated salt is illuminated with a sodium lamp.

7B11.23

two lamp flame absorption

Use two lamps (He and Na) with a single condenser and target to provide a reference with the sodium flame absorption.

7B11.24

absorption spectra

Several methods for producing sodium vapor and passing white light through.

7B11.25

flame absorption projected

The light from an arc lamp is focused on a Bunsen burner flame on the way to being projected on the screen.

7B11.25

spectral absorption by sodium vapor

Sodium flame looks dark when illuminated with sodium light.

7B11.30

mercury vapor shadow

Mercury vapor illuminated with a mercury lamp casts a shadow on a Willemite screen.

7B11.30

mercury vapor shadow

A UV lamp shines on a zinc sulfide screen while mercury vapors waft from a heated watchglass.

7B13. Resonance Radiation

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7B13.05

triboluminescence

Crush wintergreen lifesavers and they give off faint flashes of light.

7B13.10

iodine resonance radiation

Same as Oo-1.

7B13.10

iodine resonance radiation

Direct a white light beam through a evacuated flask containing iodine crystals.

7B13.10

iodine vapor resonance radiation

Focus a carbon arc on a large evacuated Florence flask containing iodine crystals.

7B13.10

resonance radiation of iodine

Pass a cone of white light through an evacuated flask containing heated iodine crystals.

7B13.15

resonance radiation of potassium

Heat a pellet of potassium placed in an evacuated flask while passing white light through the flask

7B13.20

sodium vapor beam

A sodium furnace in an evacuated bell jar produces a sodium vapor beam that forms a "pencil" of resonance reradiation when illuminated with sodium light.

7B13.20

resonance radiation - sodium vapor

A sodium vapor bulb is prepared and heated in a furnace while sodium and mercury light is passed through.

7B13.25

Hanle effect

Measure the resonance polarization of mercury light from a quartz resonance cell of mercury vapor is measured. Diagrams, References.

7B13.40

UV spectrum by fluorescence

A screen painted with quinine sulfate fluoresces in the UV. Use Quartz optics.

7B13.42

projected mercury spectum

The weak lines of the projected mercury spectrum are made visible by painting half of a card with fluorescent paint.

7B13.44

ultraviolet lines photographed

Ultraviolet lines from a carbon arc or mercury lamp are projected onto ultraviolet sensitive photographic paper.

7B13.50

fluorescence and phosphorescence

7B13.50

black light

Use a black lamp to illuminate fluorescent materials.

7B13.50

flourescence

A collection of fluorescent materials in black light.

7B13.51

fluorescence and phosphorescence

Show many substances that fluoresce and phosphoresce in UV light.

7B13.52

fluorescence and phosphorescence

Dyes, cloth, paint, etc. and an interesting retardation demonstration with a vibrating meter stick and a thin transparent film over one eye.

7B13.55

luminescence

A glow-in-the-dark sword exposed to black light. The covered portion does not glow as brightly.

7B13.58

fluorescence by X-rays

An X-ray tube in a box in a dark room is used to show fluorescence in many materials.

7B13.60

phosphorescence

Recipes are given for compounds with different luminescence. Several demonstrations are discussed.

7B13.63

phosphorescence decay

Illuminate a P7 tube face with uv light, then mask half and expose the other half to red light. The masked side will remain luminous.

7B20. Fine Splitting

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7B20.10

Zeeman splitting with mercury

A mercury lamp between the poles of a large electromagnet is focused on a Fabry-Perot interferometer.

7B20.11

three tubes for Zeeman

Sodium, mercury, and neon tubes used in Zeeman splitting.

7B20.11

Zeeman effect - sources

Sodium, mercury, and neon tubes for the Zeeman effect.

7B20.11

Zeeman effect - source

Use the violet 4046 line from the Cenco 79661 mercury tube.

7B20.14

Zeeman effect - mercury vapor

The light from a mercury lamp is focused on an air stream containing mercury vapor between the poles of an electromagnet.

7B20.15

Zeeman effect - sodium flame

Focus sodium light on a bead of borax heated between the poles of an electromagnet.

7B20.15

Zeeman effect - sodium flame

Sodium light focused on a sodium flame between the poles of an electromagnet will absorb until the field is turned on.

7B20.20

Stern-Gerlach

7B20.25

Stern-Gerlach crystal model

7B20.30

ESR - simple low field

A circuit for showing ESR in DPPH as a lecture demonstration.

7B20.31

ESR apparatus

Simple ESR apparatus.

7B20.32

ESR coil

A small helix plugs into a waveguide to coax transition.

7B20.33

ESR mechanical analog

The shaft of a gyro is made from a permanent Alnico magnet, the earth's field represents the dc field in the ESR experiment, two Helmholtz coils are used to model the microwave radiation.

7B20.34

ESR references

References for anyone planning to apply the AJP 35(3) note.

7B20.40

Mossbauer

7B20.45

Mossbauer effect - air track analog

Burn a string constraining spring loaded air carts. Vary the mass of the "nucleus" cart.

7B20.45

Mossbauer effect model

A suspended gun firing steel balls serves as a gamma ray emitting nucleus in a Mossbauer effect model. Picture, Diagrams, Construction details in appendix, p. 1373.

7B30. Ionization Potential

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7B30.10

ionization potential of mercury

Measure the ionization potential of mercury vapor in a FG-57 tube at different temperatures.

7B30.11

ionization potential

Looks like some older commercial apparatus to show the ionization potentials of mercury and xenon.

7B30.12

ionization potential of xenon

Use the Frank-Hertz principle to show the ionization potential of xenon in a 2D21 Thyratron.

7B30.13

comparrison of apparatus

The Klinger and Leybold apparatus are compared.

7B30.20

Frank-Hertz experiment

A qualitative lecture demonstration on the oscilloscope.

7B30.20

Frank-Hertz effect

The curve generated by a commercial tube is shown on an oscilloscope.

7B30.21

Frank-Hertz modification

The collector is made very negative to both the grid and cathode. When the accelerating potential is increased, the collector current appears in the opposite sense.

7B30.22

homemade Frank-Hertz tube

Replace the commercial cathode and filament assembly with a piece of 7 mil tungsten wire.

7B30.22

homemade Frank-Hertz tube

Directions for making a solder glass tube.

7B30.23

Frank-Hertz experiment

An argon filled CTIC thyatron is mounted on a board. The circuit is drawn on the board.

7B30.24

Frank-Hertz automated on x-y

Connect the constant current source to the x and the electrometer output to the y of an x-y recorder.

7B30.26

what really happens?

Gives the standard textbook explanation and then goes beyond.

7B30.40

excited states model

7B30.40

air track model ??????

A small air track is caught by a large one. Models a collision between an "electron" and an "atom" capable of being raised to an excited state.

7B30.40

collisions and excited states model

Expansion on AJP 36(1),49. Slight modification to model inelastic collisions of the second kind.

7B35. Electron Properties

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7B35.10

discharge at low pressure

Lower the pressure with a cooling bath while running the discharge tube with a spark coil.

7B35.10

Crookes tube

Evacuate a glass tube while a high voltage is applied to electrodes at the ends of the tube.

7B35.10

discharge tube and vacuum pump

Pump down a long tube while applying a high voltage across the ends.

7B35.20

Paschen's law of gas discharge

Pump down a double tube assembly with electrodes at different distances with a constant voltage on each set of electrodes.

7B35.40

Maltese cross

An electron beam produces a shadow of a Maltese cross on a fluorescent screen

7B35.40

electron discharge tube with cross

Show the shadow of a Maltese cross in an electron discharge tube.

7B35.50

paddlewheel

I don't have a category for this.

7B35.50

electron discharge tube with wheel

The commercial Crookes' tube with a paddlewheel.

7B35.70

hot and cold cathode discharge

Electrodes that can be water cooled are used to strike arcs cooled and uncooled.

7B35.71

arc characteristics

An arc struck between a carbon rod and an aluminum plate will go out if the polarity is reversed.

7B35.75

plasma tube

Bring the hand near a commercial plasma tube.

7B50. Atomic Models

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

7B50.01

history of the atom - symposium

Kinetic atom

7B50.01

history of the atom - symposium

Atomism from Newton to Dalton.

7B50.01

history of the atom - symposium

Rutherford-Bohr atom

7B50.01

history of the atom - symposium

Greek atomic theory.

7B50.01

history of the atom

An introduction to a series of four papers presented in a symposium "History of the Atom".

7B50.10

electron orbital models

A set of Klinger electron orbital models.

7B50.11

Bohr model

A motorized model with fluorescent electrons and nucleus to be viewed in the dark.

7B50.15

wave function model

Draw dots on glass plates and stack them for a 3-d model of the probability of the electron shell. Example given for hydrogen 3d state.

7B50.16

electron shell model

Golf tees are inserted into predrilled holes in a plywood sheet to represent electrons in the various shells.

7B50.20

equilibrium configurations

Steel balls floating in a dish of mercury over an electromagnet assume equilibrium configurations. A dynamic setup is also described.

7B50.50

periodic charts

Welch and Cenco periodic charts are displayed on the wall.

7B50.90

atomic beam apparatus

Determine the diameter of atoms by directing a very low pressure stream at a vane in an evacuated bell jar.

Demonstrations

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