Table of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics (4B): Heat and the First Law

Lecture Demonstrations

Thermal Properties of Matter

PIRA classification 4A

All Grayed Demos are either not available or haven't been built yet.

4A10. Thermometry

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4A10.10

Examples of Thermometers

Show many different thermometers.

4A10.12

commercial apparatus

A listing of commercial apparatus for measuring temperature.

4A10.13

demonstration thermometer

Review of the large dial Atomic Laboratories thermometer. See AJP 29(6),368

4A10.15

mercury thermometer(s)

Show various liquid thermometers.

4A10.20

Galileo's thermometer

A set of glass spheroid buoys of varying density in a glass cylinder arranged so the lowest floating ball represents the temperature. History and sources. See AJP 57,845-846 See AJP 59(1),90

4A10.25

low temperature thermometers

Measure temperatures with thermocouples or a pentane low-temperature thermometer.

4A10.30

thermocouple

The copper-constantan thermocouple and galvanometer as a lecture table thermometer.

4A10.31

thermocouples

Make a thermocouple and demonstrate it if you are going to use it in thermoelectricity.

4A10.35

supersensitive thermometer

Directions for making a thermometer from a thermistor and transistor amplifier.

4A10.40

temperature sensitive paint

Directions for making temperature sensitive paint.

4A10.42

thermosensitive pigment

Double iodide of mercury and silver (HgI2.2AgI) changes form yellow to red on heating. Several demos. See AJP 30(4),300

4A10.45

thermochromic cards

Many demonstrations are discussed using thermochromic cards as temperature indicators, such as pictures, diagrams, references. See TPT 1(5), 226

4A10.50

cholesteric liquid crystals

Making liquid crystals for thermal mapping. See AJP 38(4),425

4A10.70

pyrometry

1) Show the changes in color and brightness as a iron wire is heated. 2) Place a lamp on the focal plane of a projection lantern and vary the voltage so the filament appears darker and brighter than the background.

4A10.90

temperature ranges

Prepare a large diagram several meters long ranging from 0 to 6000 K with points of interest indicated.

4A20. Liquid Expansion

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4A20.10

thermal expansion of water

A flask with a long slender neck is filled with water and immersed in a hot water bath. The fluid will drop before rising. (Tippy bird or sproot)

4A20.11

Mercury Torricelli tube

A small bulb with a capillary full of mercury is immersed in a bath of hot water. The meniscus falls, then rises.

4A20.12

Thermometer(Torricelli tube)

A thermometer inserted in hot water shows a drop in temperature as the glass expands before the liquid warms.

4A20.13

water thermometer

A bulb with a small bore tube.

4A20.20

expansion of fluids

A manometer is surrounded on one side with ice water and on the other by steam.

4A20.25

expansion of liquids

A number of test tubes filled with various liquids are immersed in a hot water bath. Expansion is magnified by small bore tubes.

4A20.30

maximum density of water

A flask with a narrow stem shows volume changes and a thermocouple shows temperature changes when water is allowed to warm from 0 C. Use a 100ml quartz flask and 1 mm bore capillary tube for a meniscus drop of 5 to 6 mm and Immerse a water thermometer in an ice bath.

4A20.35

water at 4 C

The familiar Hope apparatus. A tall cylinder of water with a collar of salt/ice around the middle will freeze at the top and remain at 4 C at the bottom. A jar of water 35cm high with 15 cm of ice flaoting on top, the temperature at the bottom does not fall below 4 C.

4A20.40

coefficient of expansion of oil

A hydrometer is used to measure the density of olive oil as it cools. See TPT 2(7),338

4A30. Solid Expansion

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4A30.10a

Bimetallic Strip

A bimetal strip of brass and steel is heated in a Bunsen burner flame and then cooled with liquid nitrogen.

4A30.10b

Bimetalic Strip with Stand

A mounted bimetallic strip is heated or cooled and compared to its room temperature state.

4A30.11a

thermostat

A small bimetal strip acts as a switch in a thermostat.

4A30.11b

bimetallic strip thermostat

Set up a bimetallic strip thermostat to ring bells or flash lights.

4A30.11c

thermostat model

A bimetallic strip bends away from an electrical contact when heated turning off a light.

4A30.12

turn signal oscillator

Two types of turn signal oscillators that use bimetal strips are discussed. See AJP 55(10),954

4A30.20

Large Ball and Ring Stand

A ball passes through a snugly fitting ring when both are at the same temperature but not when the ball is heated.

4A30.21

Ball and Ring

A ball passes through a snugly fitting ring when both are at the same temperature.

4A30.22

Balls and Plate

A plate with a hole is heated with a set of two balls, one over and one under size. Heat the plate and slip over both.

4A30.23

shrink fit

Heat a brass ring and slip it onto a slightly tapered steel bar and pass around the class. See 30.21 in reverse.

4A30.30

forces caused by change of length

A heavy iron bar heated and placed in a yoke breaks a cast iron bolt as it cools.

4A30.30a

pin breaker

Heat a rod to break a 1/8" diameter pin by expansion.

4A30.30b

Break the Bolt

A heated bar is tightened in a yoke against a cast iron peg which breaks as the bar cools.

4A30.31

break the bolt

A drill rod clamped between a inner steel rod and an outer brass tube breaks when the brass tube is heated. Diagram.

4A30.40

Jumping Discs

Bimetal discs "jump" upon cooling after being heated.

4A30.45

bending glass by expansion

One edge of a strip of plate glass is heated with a Bunsen burner causing the glass to bend toward the cooler side.

4A30.46

Trevelyan rocker

A brass or copper rocker heated and placed on a lead support will rock due to expansion of the lead. Diagram.

4A30.50

expansion of quartz and glass

Quartz and glass tubes are both heated with a torch and plunged into water. Try the same thing with Pyrex and soft glass.

4A30.55

expansion of a C Rod

Steam is passed through an aluminum tube and a dial indicator shows the change in length.

4A30.58

Thermal Expansion of Metal Rods

An apparatus holds rods of different materials while they are heated over a flame. Each rod expands linearly to different extents while heating.

4A30.60

sagging wire

Heat a length of nichrome wire electrically and watch it sag. ALSO - Recalescence temperature of iron (800 C).

4A30.65

bridge expansion

Either the wire or the roadway can be heated in this model of a suspension bridge.

4A30.69

gridiron pendulum

A gridiron pendulum of constant effective length when heated is made of tubes of brass and zinc; ie a pendulum that maintains effectiveness with changing temperature.

4A30.80

heat rubber bands

1) Pass out rubber bands, have the students stretch them while holding against lips, then wait and reverse for cooling. 2) Hang a 1 kg mass from four rubber bands so it touches the table, heat 20 sec with a heat lamp and the mass will lift 1 cm. See AJP31(5),397

4A30.80a

thermal properties of rubber

Rubber tubing inside a copper shield contracts as it is heated.

4A30.82

heat rubber

A complex apparatus that oscillates as a rubber band is heated and cooled.

4A40. Properties of Materials at Low

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4A40.10

lead bell

Ring a lead bell at room temperature and after it has been cooled in liquid nitrogen.

4A40.15

solder spring

Cool a solder spring in liquid nitrogen and hang a mass from it.

4A40.20

mercury hammer

Cast a mercury hammer and freeze with liquid nitrogen in the shape of a hammer head. Use the mercury hammer to pound a nail.

4A40.30

smashing rose and tube

Cool a rose, urffer tube, rubber hose, or handball in a clear dewar of liquid nitrogen and smash it.

4A40.32

low temp behavior

A discussion of a heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen lab and a listing of the usual demonstrations. See TPT 28(8),544

4A40.32

low temp behavior

Smash a wiener, sheet metal, flower, hollow rubber ball, saw a sponge, alcohol is viscous, a pencil won't mark.

4A40.40

viscous alcohol

Ethyl alcohol becomes very viscous at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Cool alcohol with liquid nitrogen and pour through a cloth screen.

4A40.50

liquid air fountain

A fountain is made using evaporating liquid air as a pressure source.

4A40.60

absorption of gases

A test tube filled with charcoal is attached to a bent 80 cm tube dipped in a beaker of mercury. When the charcoal is cooled, the mercury rises. A discharge tube filled with charcoal passes through all the stages to vacuum when cooled in liquid air.

4A40.70

burning in liquid oxygen

Steel wool is burned after being immersed in liquid oxygen.

4A40.72

burning in liquid oxygen

While smoking a cigarette the lecturer puts liquid oxygen in the mouth and blows out.

4A40.75

reactions in liquid oxygen

Drop a piece of potassium cooled in liquid oxygen into water.

4A40.80

filtering liquid air

Crystals of ice and carbon dioxide are retained in a filter.

4A40.85

density of liquid air

Pour liquid air into water. As the nitrogen evaporates, the liquid air sinks and oscillates with convection currents.

4A50. Liquid Helium

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4A50.10

basic low temperature apparatus

The basic apparatus for working with liquid helium is reviewed. Details in appendix, p.1305.

4A50.11

low temp apparatus

Pictures of many devices for use in lecture demonstration and laboratory. See AJP 34(8),692

4A50.20

superconduction in lead

A superconducting ammeter allows direct observation of the current. Lead in liquid helium is superconducting and floats a magnet. See AJP 43(12),1105

4A50.30

the persistent current

A niobium coil remains superconduction at 4.2 K for up to 5 amps. Picture, Diagram.

4A50.40

lambda-point transition

The transition between helium I and II.

4A50.50

superleak

Leakage through a fritted disk happens with helium I but not II.

4A50.60

the fountain effect

The fountain effect. Pictures.

4A50.70

rollin creeping film

A film of helium II creeps out of a dish. Picture.

4A50.80

resistance vs. temperature

A circuit shown can be used to demonstrate superconductivity in lecture. Diagram.

Demonstrations

Home

fw: ThermalProperties (last edited 2013-07-18 20:28:34 by srnarf)