Table of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics (4C): Change of State

Thermodynamics (4E): Gas Law

Lecture Demonstrations

Kinetic Theory

PIRA classification 4D

Grayed Demos are either not available or haven't been built yet.

4D10. Brownian Motion

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4D10.00

Brownian Motion

4D10.10

Brownian motion cell

View a smoke cell under a microscope.

4D10.10

Brownian motion smoke cell on tv

Look through a microscope at a small illuminated cell filled with smoke.

4D10.10

Brownian motion

Observe the motion of particles in a smoke cell through a microscope.

4D10.10

Brownian motion smoke cell

Observe the Brownian motion smoke cell through a low powered microscope.

4D10.10

Brownian motion cell

Observe a small smoke cell through a microscope.

4D10.10

Brownian motion cell

View a smoke cell under a microscope.

4D10.10

brownian motion

A smoke cell is viewed under 100X magnification.

4D10.11

Brownian motion - virtual image

The optical setup for viewing Brownian motion by enlarged virtual image.

4D10.12

Brownian motion

Use a laser beam to illuminate a smoke cell under a microscope viewed with TV

4D10.12

smoke cell

Project the Brownian motion smoke cell with TV Picture.

4D10.13

Brownian motion on tv

Polystyrene microspheres are used in place of the smoke cell, the eyepiece of the microscope is removed and the image is formed on the shielded TV tube.

4D10.13

smoke cell for tv

Modifications to the standard Welch smoke tube for use with television projection.

4D10.14

Brownian motion - light scattering

Pass a laser beam through a cell with a suspension of polystyrene spheres. Hold a card up and show the fluctuations of the scattered light.

4D10.15

Brownian motion - macroscopic cell

Ball bearings hit a piece of stressed plexiglass Crossed Polaroids render the balls invisible.

4D10.20

Brownian motion simulator

4D10.20

Brownian motion simulation

Place many small and a few large balls on a vibrating plate on an overhead projector.

4D10.20

Brownian motion simulation

A large disc is placed in with small ball bearings in the shaker frame on the overhead projector.

4D10.21

Brownian motion simulation

A Brownian motion shaker for the overhead projector. Includes the original references to Brown and Einstein.

4D10.25

Brownian motion simulation

The Cenco kinetic theory apparatus is modified by mounting a baffle in the center of the tube to reduce the spinning of the particles, and suspending a 1 cm bead in one half of the chamber.

4D10.30

colloidal suspension

4D10.30

Brownian motion - colloidal

Place a colloidal metal suspension made by sparking electrodes under water on a microscope slide.

4D10.31

formation of lead carbonate crystals

Project the formation of flat-sided crystals of lead carbonate in a glass cell on a screen. See Sutton, A-50.

4D10.31

rotary Brownian motion

Observe a dilute suspension of flat lead carbonate crystals under low magnification.

4D10.33

Brownian motion in TiO2 suspension

A TV camera looks through a microscope at a water suspension of TiO2.

4D10.34

Brownian motion corridor demo.

Dow latex spheres in water through a 1900 power projection microscope, mechanical analog with a 2" puck and 1/4" ball bearings.

4D10.34

Brownian motion corridor demo.

A corridor demonstration of Brownian motion of Dow latex spheres using a projection 1900 power microscope.

4D10.40

Dow spheres suspension

4D10.40

Brownian motion of a galvanometer

An optical-lever amplifier for studying the Brownian motion of a galvanometer.

4D10.40

Brownian motion with Dow spheres

Small polystyrene spheres made by Dow are suspended in water for illustrating Brownian motion.

4D20. Mean Free Path

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4D20.00

Mean Free Path

4D20.10

Crookes' radiometer

The fake radiometer is evacuated until the mean free path is about the dimension of the system.

4D20.10

Crookes' radiometer

The radiometer spins in the wrong direction.

4D20.10

radiometer

The fake radiometer is evacuated so the mean free path is about the dimension of the system.

4D20.10

radiometer

The radiometer and a lamp.

4D20.11

radiometer analysis

An "elementary" model for the radiometer at the sophomore level.

4D20.11

Crookes' radiometer

When the pressure of the Crookes' radiometer is about 1 mm it works well. Place it near dry ice and it will run backwards.

4D20.12

Crookes' radiometer backwards

Put your radiometer in the refrigerator, also try an interesting liquid N2 demo.

4D20.12

Crookes' radiometer backwards

Use liquid N2 or freon to cool the radiometer so it will run backwards.

4D20.12

Crookes' radiometer backwards

A letter calling attention to the Woodruff (TPT,6,358) article.

4D20.13

heating the radiometer

Heat the glass of the radiometer until it is motionless and as it cools it will run backwards.

4D20.15

calorotor

Vanes rotate in a tube filled with 20 mTorr helium warmed on one end.

4D20.20

mean free path and pressure

4D20.20

mean free path and pressure

Aluminum evaporated in high vacuum forms a shadow of a Maltese cross on the side of the bell jar.

4D20.20

Maltese Cross

Evaporating aluminum atoms plate a bell jar except in the shadow of a Maltese Cross.

4D20.30

mean free path pin board

4D20.30

mean free path pinboard

Steel balls are rolled down a pinboard and the number of collisions is compared with theory.

4D20.31

velocity distribution and path lengt

Take pictures of air table pucks and plot velocity distribution and path length.

4D20.40

Boltzmann distribution model

A set of cusps is formed in a curve with height representing energy levels. The assembly is driven by a shaker.

4D20.45

computer Maxwell-Boltzmann

A FORTRAN program available from the author that shows the evolution of speed distributions.

4D20.46

computer many particle systems

Computer simulations with a billiard table model and a particle moving in a regular array of hard discs.

4D30. Kinetic Motion

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4D30.00

Kinetic Motion

4D30.05

on the meaning of temperature

Many comments on the TPT 28(2),94 article on temperature.

4D30.10

Cenco kinetic theory apparatus

4D30.10

Cenco kinetic theory apparatus

The Cenco apparatus with lead shot in a piston.

4D30.10

mechanical model of kinetic motion

The Cenco molecular motion simulator with lead shot in a piston.

4D30.10

Cenco kinetic theory apparatus

A discussion of the Cenco kinetic theory apparatus.

4D30.11

big kinetic motion apparatus

4D30.11

big kinetic motion apparatus

Scale up the balls in a piston using a 16" diameter tube and 1/2" diameter balls.

4D30.12

mechanical gas model

The details are not clear from this picture of a mechanical gas model.

4D30.13

kinetic theory models

Drive small steel balls in a small chamber with a tuning fork.

4D30.20

molecular motion simulator

4D30.20

molecular motion simulator

Ball bearings on a vibrating plate on the overhead projector.

4D30.20

kinetic theory demonstrator

A 2-D ball shaker for the overhead projector.

4D30.20

two dimensional kinetic motion

Balls on a vibrating plate are used with the overhead projector for many molecular simulations.

4D30.21

equipartition of energy simulator

4D30.21

simple equipartition model

Jostle two different sized marbles by hand in a large tray to show different velocities.

4D30.21

kinetic theory models

A large and small version of balls on a horizontal surface agitated by a hand frame.

4D30.21

equipartition of energy simulation

Use different size balls in the shaker frame on the overhead.

4D30.22

pressure vs. volume simulator

4D30.22

pressure vs. volume simulation

Change the size of the entrained area of the shaker frame on the overhead projector.

4D30.23

free expansion simulation

4D30.23

free expansion simulation

Balls are initially constrained to one half of the shaker frame and then the bar is lifted.

4D30.24

temperature increase simulation

4D30.24

temperature increase simulation

A shaker frame on the overhead projector is shown with different shaking rates.

4D30.25

mechanical shaker

Determine the distribution of velocities produced by an overhead projector shaker. Picture, Diagrams, Construction details in appendix, p.1294.

4D30.26

roller randomizer

Cylindrical rollers in a pentagon configuration produce random motion.

4D30.27

driven steel cage

A motor driven steel cage can be used horizontally or vertically to perform several models of kinetic motion. Pictures, Construction details in appendix, p.1295.

4D30.30

hard sphere model

A bouncing plate with balls. The free space ratio is varied giving models of gas through crystal behavior. Pictures, Construction details in appendix, p 1292.

4D30.31

speaker shaker

Steel balls in a container on a speaker show both fluid and solid state phenomena.

4D30.32

shaking velcro balls

Attach velcro to spheres and shake. "Bonding" will vary with the vigor of agitation.

4D30.32

air table molecules

Four magnets placed on the Plexiglas discs provide the attraction for many demonstrations of molecular kinetics.

4D30.34

drop formation shaker

A motorized shaker frame in a magnetic field causes steel balls to act like molecules forming drops.

4D30.37

kinetic theory models

A fan propels several hundred small steel balls in a container. Also shows Brownian motion.

4D30.38

kinetic theory models

Compressed air drives ping pong balls in a large container.

4D30.40

glass beads

4D30.40

model for kinetic theory of gases

An evacuated tube containing mercury and some glass chips is heated over a Bunsen burner.

4D30.40

kinetic theory models

Mercury heated in a evacuated glass tube causes glass beads to fly about.

4D30.40

glass beads

Heat an evacuated tube with some mercury and glass chips. An optical projection system is shown.

4D30.40

mercury kinetic theory

Glass chips float on a pool of mercury in an evacuated tube. Heat the mercury and the chips dance in the mercury vapor.

4D30.41

kinetic theory model

Mercury is heated in a large evacuated tube causing pith balls to jump about.

4D30.50

model of kinetic pressure

Balls drop from a funnel onto a pan balance.

4D30.51

dropping shot

Pour lead shot onto the apex of a cone attached to a float. Vary the number and velocity of shot.

4D30.55

stream of dropping balls

Apparatus Drawings Project No. 9: Drop 1/2" balls at a rate of 5/sec 25' onto a massive damped balance and compare deflection with static loading and theory.

4D30.60

flame tube viscosity

4D30.60

dependence of viscosity on temp.

See Fm-4.

4D30.60

dependence of viscosity on temp.

As the tube on one side of a twin burner is heated, the flame becomes smaller.

4D30.60

flame tube viscosity

One leg of a "T" tube is heated resulting in increased viscosity and a smaller flame of illuminating gas.

4D30.60

gas viscosity change with temp

Heat the gas flowing to one of two identical burners and the flame decreases.

4D30.71

viscosity of gas independ. of press.

The velocity of a precision ball falling in a precision tube is independent of pressure as the tube is partially evacuated.

4D30.71

viscosity independent of pressure

See Fm-3.

4D30.72

viscosity and pressure

Oscillations in the quartz fiber radiation pressure apparatus change frequency as it is evacuated.

4D30.75

viscosity independent of pressure

A viscosity damped oscillator is placed into a bell jar and evacuated to various pressures to show viscosity independent of pressure. Pictures, Construction details in appendix, p. 1290.

4D40. Molecular Dimensions

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4D40.00

Molecular Dimensions

4D40.10

steric and oleic acid films

4D40.10

stearic and oleic acid films

Films from drops of stearic or oleic acid are measured.

4D40.12

alcohol slick

Place a drop of alcohol at the center of a petri dish containing a thin layer of water.

4D40.13

determination of drop size

A ring proportional to drop size forms when dropped on filter paper.

4D40.15

Avogadro's number

Use a BB's to model a drop spreading on the surface of water, then use oleic acid and do the real thing.

4D40.15

monomolecular layer

A "BB" model and the Oleic acid monomolecular layer. Pictures.

4D40.20

films

Measure gold leaf thickness and show the black of a soap film.

4D50. Diffusion and Osmosis

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

4D50.00

Diffusion & Osmosis

4D50.10

fragrant vapor - ethyl ketone

4D50.15

diffusion model on the overhead

Balls of two different colors are initially separated by a Lucite bar on a vibrating table. Picture, Construction details in appendix, p.1295.

4D50.20

diffusion through porcelain

4D50.20

diffusion through porcelain

Different gases are directed around an unglazed porcelain cup. A "J" tube manometer shows pressure. Diagram.

4D50.20

diffusion

Methane and helium are diffused through a porous clay jar. A glass tube extending down into a jar of water bubbles as an indicator.

4D50.21

diffusion of CO2

When the porcelain cup is surrounded by CO2, water is sucked up the tube.

4D50.22

diffusion and hydrogen

When hydrogen is trapped around a unglazed porcelain cup attached to a tube leading to a beaker of water, it bubbles out; when the trap is removed, water is sucked up the tube.

4D50.30

diffusion in a discharge tube

Mercury is collected in the refrigerated end of a discharge tube containing neon. When the cold end is warmed and ac is applied, the diffusion of mercury can be followed by the spectral change. Also works with a germicidal lamp.

4D50.40

diffusion and pressure

Two 1 L round flasks are joined by a small tube. One is attached to a vacuum pump while the crystals are heated in the other.

4D50.42

diffusion of gases

Hydrogen is allowed to diffuse down in a cylinder into air to form an explosive mixture.

4D50.45

bromine diffusion

4D50.45

diffusion of bromine

Bromine diffuses out of a cylinder into air.

4D50.45

bromine diffusion

Glass tubes containing bromine and bromine/air are cooled in liquid nitrogen and allowed to warm back up to show diffusion.

4D50.46

bromine diffusion

A few drops of bromine are placed in cylinders containing hydrogen and air.

4D50.47

bromine diffusion

Break bromine ampules in air filled and evacuated tubes.

4D50.50

bromine cryophorus

4D50.50

bromine cryophorus

Three different bromine tubes: with air, partial vacuum, and vacuum, are cooled in liquid nitrogen and allowed to warm.

4D50.50

bromine cryophorous

Tubes with bromine and air at different pressures are immersed in a cold trap to show different diffusion rates.

4D50.55

ether vapor before diffusion

Pour ether vapor from a wide mouth bottle into a large beaker suspended from a scale. Shadow projection shows an interface before diffusion starts. Picture.

4D50.60

diffusion in liquids - CuSO4

4D50.60

diffusion of liquids - CuSo4

Concentrated CuSO4 and water diffuse in a cylinder.

4D50.60

diffusion of liquids

A graduate 1/3 full of a saturated solution of copper sulfate and topped with water will show diffusion over time.

4D50.60

diffusion of liquids

A tube 2m long with saturated copper sulfate at the bottom can be displayed for decades.

4D50.62

potassium permanganate in water

Drop potassium permanganate in a dish of water on the overhead projector.

4D50.63

dissolving crystals

How to introduce crystals of potassium chromate or copper sulfate to the bottom of a long tube of water.

4D50.65

diffusion pressure in a bottle

Carbon tetrachloride or lemon oil diffuses out of polystyrene bottles.

4D50.70

permeable membrane

4D50.70

permeable membrane

Place a permeable membrane bag attached to a vertical tube and filled with a sugar solution in water.

4D50.70

permeable membrane

Place a saturated solution of salt or sugar in a thistle tube capped with a permeable membrane and insert into water.

4D50.71

osmotic pressure

Immerse a semipermeable membrane over a thistle tube in a CuSO4 solution.

4D50.72

osmosis

Stick a glass tube into a carrot or beet and put the veggie in water. Water will rise in the tube over several days.

4D50.73

optical osmometer

An optical lever shows bowing of a permeable membrane over the course of a lecture.

4D50.74

measurement of osmotic pressure

Immerse a solution sealed in a semipermeable porcelain cup in pure water and read the pressure with a manometer.

4D50.75

preparation of semi-permeably membra

On forming a copper ferricynide precipitate permeable to water but not dissolved substances.

4D50.80

osmosis simulator

4D50.80

osmosis simulator

A vibrating plate on an overhead has a barrier sized so only one of two diameter ball bearings will pass.

4D50.80

diffusion simulation

A bar across the shaker frame on the overhead projector has a small hole that allows small but not larger balls to pass.

Demonstrations

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