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5E-Electromotive Force and Current

PIRA classification 5E

Grayed Demos are either not available or haven't been built yet

Please note that these tables have not yet been edited to match the equipment that is available within the UW-Madison lecture demo lab. There maybe many items listed within these tables that we either "can not do" or have available.

5E20. Electrolysis

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

5E20.10

electrolysis of water

DC passed through slightly acidic water evolves hydrogen and oxygen at the electrodes.

5E20.10

gas coulombmeter

The volume of gas from electrolysis is measured.

5E20.10

electrolysis of water

The Hoffman apparatus for electrolysis of water.

5E20.10

electrolysis

The standard commercial electrolysis apparatus.

5E20.11

electrolysis of water modification

Place Tygon tubing over the wire coming out the bottom to protect it from the acid.

5E20.12

electrolysis of water

A projection electrolytic cell for showing the evolution of gas.

5E20.15

explosion of hydrogen and oxygen

Make soap bubbles with the gases from electrolysis of water and blow them to droplets.

5E20.21

phenolphthalein electrolysis indicat

Phenophthalein is used as an indicator in electrolysis demonstrations.

5E20.22

purple cabbage electrolysis indicato

Use purple cabbage as an indicator for electrolysis demonstrations.

5E20.22

electrolysis of sodium sulfate with

Use purple cabbage as an indicator to show electrolysis of sodium sulfate.

5E20.25

electrolysis of Na ions through glas

Sodium is plated on the inside of a lamp inserted into molten sodium nitrate.

5E20.28

mass transfer in electrolysis

Measure the current while transferring mass by plating copper to obtain a semi quantitative determination of the Faraday.

5E20.29

mass of Na atom by electrolysis

A method of determining the mass of a sodium atom by electrolysis.

5E20.30

electrolytic rectifier

Electrodes of aluminum and lead in a saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate form a rectifier.

5E20.40

oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron

Put ferrous iron in hot water with nitric acid and heat.

5E20.60

electric forge

Melt an iron rod cathode in a strong sodium sulfite solution.

5E30. Plating

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

5E30.10

copper flashing of iron

Polished iron is plated in a copper sulfate solution.

5E30.20

electroplating copper

Copper and carbon electrodes in a copper sulfate bath.

5E30.20

electroplating

Copper is plated onto a carbon electrode in a copper sulfate bath.

5E30.24

electroplating - lead tree

Current is passed between lead electrodes in a saturated solution of lead acetate causing fern like clusters to form on the cathode.

5E30.26

electroplating - tin tree

Current is passed between electrodes of copper and tin in a acid solution of stannic chloride. With copper as the cathode, tin crystallizes as long needles.

5E30.28

electroplating

Plate with copper or silver by connecting the object to the negative terminal and using copper sulfate or silver nitrate solution.

5E30.30

pickle frying

Apply high voltage across a pickle and it lights at one end.

5E30.40

silver coulombmeter

Silver is plated in a silver nitrate bath onto a platinum cup.

5E30.40

silver coulombmeter

A silver coulombmeter shows a 1 g change in anode weight when 1 amp is passed for 1000 sec.

5E40. Cells and Batteries

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

5E40.01

Volta's EMF concept

The distinction between EMF and electrostatic potential difference is discussed.

5E40.05

contact potentials: history, etc

The history, concepts, and persistent misconceptions on the contact potentials between metals.

5E40.10

EMF dependence on electrode material

Two stands each hold several strips of different metals which can be paired and dipped into a dilute acid bath.

5E40.10

battery effect

Combinations of copper, lead, zinc, and iron are dipped into a dilute sulfuric acid solution.

5E40.15

contact potential difference

The contact potential difference between copper and zinc can be demonstrated using a condensing electroscope.

5E40.20

voltaic cell

A voltaic cell is made with copper and zinc electrodes in a sulfuric acid solution.

5E40.20

voltaic cells

Short a few voltaic cells in series through a loop of iron or nichrome wire.

5E40.21

cardboard model voltaic cell circuit

A cardboard model illustrates potential difference and electromotive force in a voltaic cell circuit.

5E40.25

lemon battery/voltaic cell

Stick copper and galvanized steel electrodes into a lemon and attach a voltmeter.

5E40.25

lemon screamer,lasagna cell

A little tutorial on electrochemistry for those using the lemon screamer and other interesting cells.

5E40.25

lemon battery

Zinc and copper strips are hooked to a galvanometer and stuck into fruits and vegetables.

5E40.26

voltaic cell polarization

Heat the copper cathode in a Bunsen burner flame to oxidize the surface.

5E40.40

Crowsfoot or gravity cell

A zinc-zinc sulfate/copper-copper sulfate battery.

5E40.50

adding dry cells

Charge an electroscope with a number of 45 V B batteries in series.

5E40.51

dry cell terminals

Hook up several dry cells in series to a condensing electroscope, remove the capacitance and test polarity with charged rods.

5E40.60

lead acid simple battery

5E40.60

lead acid simple battery

A simple lead acid battery with two electrodes is charged for a short time and discharged through a bell.

5E40.60

storage battery

Two lead plates in a sulfuric acid solution are charged and then discharged through a doorbell.

5E40.60

storage cells

The elementary lead storage cell is charged and discharged on the lecture table.

5E40.60

simple battery

Charge two lead plates in 30% sulfuric acid and discharge through a flashlight bulb.

5E40.61

storage cells

Melt nail with a storage battery.

5E40.62

lead-salt cell

Instead of acid, use a saturated salt solution of sodium bicarbonate and magnesium sulfate.

5E40.70

internal resistance of batteries

5E40.70

internal resistance of batteries

5E40.75

weak and good battery

5E40.75

internal resistance of batteries

Measure similar no load voltage on identical looking batteries and then apply a load to each and show the difference in voltage between a good and weak battery.

5E50. Thermoelectriciy

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

5E50.10

thermocouple

Two iron-copper junctions, one in ice and the other in a flame, are connected to a galvanometer.

5E50.10

thermocouple

Attach a voltmeter to the iron wires of two copper-iron junctions while they are differentially heated.

5E50.10

thermocouple

Two iron-copper junctions, one in ice and the other in a flame, are connected to a galvanometer.

5E50.10

thermocouple

Place a twisted wire thermocouple in a flame and observe the current on a lecture table galvanometer.

5E50.11

thermocouples

Heating two metals causes a deflection on a galvanometer.

5E50.12

thermoelectric generator

Review of a commercial thermoelectric generator made from 150 constantan/nickel-molybdenum thermocouples in series.

5E50.15

Seebeck effect

The thermoelectric effect of copper-iron junctions.

5E50.17

Seebeck and Peltier effects

Send current through a copper-iron-copper circuit for several seconds and immediately disconnect and switch to a galvanometer.

5E50.18

copper-iron junctions ring

Sixty copper-iron junctions in series are arrayed in a ring heated simultaneously with a Bunsen burner producing 90 mA.

5E50.19

thermoelectric compass

Bars of copper and iron are joined to form a case for a compass needle. The needle will indicate the direction of the current as one or the other junction is heated.

5E50.19

thermocouple coil magnet

Heat a thermocouple loop and the current produces a magnetic field that can be detected by a compass needle.

5E50.20

thermoelectric effect in a wire

Show that a piece of soft iron wire connected to a galvanometer has little thermoelectric effect until the wire is kinked.

5E50.25

Thompson effect

A flame moved along a long wire will "push ahead" current.

5E50.30

thermoelectric magnet

Heat one side of a heavy copper loop closed by an unknown metal to generate thermoelectricity for an electromagnet.

5E50.30

thermoelectric magnet

A ring of copper shorted by iron forms a thermocouple that powers an electromagnet when one end is in water and the other is heated in a flame.

5E50.30

thermoelectric magnet

One end of a heavy copper bar bent into a loop and closed with a copper-nickel alloy is heated, the other cooled. An electromagnet made with a soft iron shell can support 200 lbs. Picture.

5E50.30

thermocouple magnet

A Bunsen burner heats one side of a thermocouple magnet supporting over 10 Kg.

5E50.30

thermoelectric magnet

Heat and cool opposite sides of a large thermocouple. Suspend a large weight from an electromagnet powered by the thermocouple current.

5E50.36

3M Aztec lamp

A thermocouple is built into a kerosene lamp.

5E50.60

thermoelectric cooler

A Peltier device is used to cool a drop of water.

5E50.60

thermoelectric heat pump

Mount aluminum blocks with digital thermometers on either side of a Peltier device. Run the current both ways.

5E50.61

Peltier effect

Directions for making an antimony-bismuth junction and an apparatus to show heating and cooling.

5E50.62

Peltier effect

Directions for building a Peltier effect device.

5E50.90

pyroelectric crystals

Demonstrate the temperature effect on the polarization of pyroelectric crystals. Picture.

5E50.93

domains of electric polarization

Tiny BaTiO3 crystals are heated on a microscope slide until the domains disappear.

5E60. Piezoelectricity

PIRA #

Demonstration Name

Abstract

5E60.05

piezoelectric model

A ball and spring model of the piezoelectric effect.

5E60.10

quartz crystal scraped

5E60.12

Rochelle salt demos

Ferroelectricity, hysteresis, Curie-point, and the direct piezoelectric effect are demonstrated with a Rochelle salt. Diagrams, Construction and Preparation details in appendix, p.1322.

5E60.13

piezoelectric effect - Rochelle salt

A Rochelle salt is hooked to a neon lamp or electrostatic voltmeter.

5E60.15

piezoelectric sheets

Make sheets of polycrystalline Rochelle salt that show piezoelectric effects.

5E60.16

PZT sources

Two sources for ceramic lead-zirconate-titnante (PZT), 1961.

5E60.20

piezoelectric sparker

Attach the commercial piezoelectric sparker to Braun electroscope.

5E60.21

piezoelectric gas lighter modified

Mount a sphere on the end of a piezoelectric gas lighter.

5E60.25

piezoelectric gun

A piezoelectric gun is used to discharge a set of charged nylon strings.

5E60.25

piezoelectric pistol

One end of a piezoelectric crystal is attached to a needle point in the pistol.

5E60.30

stress vs. voltage

Measure the voltage of a Swignette salt crystal under various stresses produced by a mass on a lever arm.

5E60.40

piezoelectric speaker

Excite a Seignette salt crystal with an audio voltage and couple it to a sounding board.

5E60.41

converse piezoelectric effect

Connect an audio oscillator to a large Rochelle salt crystal and the sound can be distinctly heard.

5E60.42

piezoelectric speaker

Apply an audio oscillator to a Rochelle salt and amplify with a wood sounding board.

5E60.45

resonating capacitor

A HYK capacitor (containing BaTiO3) resonates mechanically at a number of frequencies in the audio range.

5E60.47

piezoelectric oscillator

Four Rochelle salt crystals are mounted at the center of a long square cross section steel bar and driven by a circuit. Circuit diagrams.

5E60.60

hysteresis in barium titanate

A circuit for showing hysteresis in ferroelectric crystals on the oscilloscope.

Demonstrations

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